Alginate as a source of dietary fiber

Cell & Molecular Biosciences, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 5.55). 02/2005; 45(6):497-510. DOI: 10.1080/10408390500285673
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alginate, an algal polysaccharide, is widely used in the food industry as a stabilizer, or as a thickening or emulsifying agent. As an indigestible polysaccharide, alginate may also be viewed as a source of dietary fiber. Previous work has suggested that dietary fibres may protect against the onset and continuation of a number of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. This article aims to examine what is currently understood about the fiber-like activities of alginate, particularly its effects on intestinal absorption and the colon, and therefore aims to gauge the potential use of alginate as a dietary supplement for the maintenance of normal health, or the alleviation of certain cardiovascular or gastrointestinal diseases.

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Available from: Iain Brownlee, Aug 22, 2015
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    • "It has been reported that dietary fiber can prevent obesity through a numerous mechanisms such as reducing caloric density of food (Schneeman, 1987), limiting the absorption of fat in the small intestine (Vahouny et al., 1988). Moreover, a soluble dietary fiber for instance alginate has a significant capacity to limit lipid absorption (Brownlee et al., 2005). Gum arabic (GA), an edible dried sticky exudate from Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal is rich in non-viscous soluble fiber (Slavin, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a global health concern associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies include surgery and synthetic drugs, which may cause high costs and serious complications. High levels of glucocorticoid in adipose tissue generated by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) are associated with the pathogenesis of obesity. Gum arabic (GA, Acacia senegal) works as a dietary fiber that helps reduce body fat deposition. Yet, the effects of the dietary fiber, gum arabic (GA) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and its association with 11β-HSD1 have not been well studied.
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    • "Furthermore, alginates are widely used in the food and medical industries and have a range of bioactive properties, as reviewed elsewhere (Brownlee et al., 2005). Alginates have been shown to be potent inhibitors of pancreatic lipase activity and are being investigated as a potential tool for the management of obesity (Balasubramaniam et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alginates are widely used in the food and medical industries, including as a Gastro-Oesophagul Reflux treatment. This work investigates the inhibitory effects of alginate on the reflux aggressors trypsin and pepsin and the role of alginate-substrate binding, pH and alginate structure on inhibition. Alginates were shown to reduce pepsin activity by up to 53.9% (±9.5SD) in vitro. Strong positive correlation between alginate mannuronate residue frequency and levels of pepsin inhibition was observed. Limited inhibition of trypsin was shown. Viscometric observations of pH dependent interactions between alginate and protein suggest a mechanism whereby pH dependent ionic interactions reduce substrate availability to enzyme at acidic pH. To understand how dietary protein digestion is affected by alginate, proteolytic digestion was investigated in an in vitro model of the upper digestive tract. Significant inhibition of proteolysis was shown in the gastric phase of digestion, but not the small intestinal phase. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Carbohydrate Polymers 06/2015; 25. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.05.062 · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    • "The total dietary fiber content of seaweeds (25% to 75% of the dry weight of marine algae) is higher than the fiber content of most fruits and vegetables (Jimenez-Escrig and Sanchez-Muniz 2000). Human consumption of algal fiber has been proven to be health-related and beneficial (with antitumor, anticoagulant, antiviral, and antihypercholesterolemic activities) (Noda 1993; Brownlee and others 2005; Dawczynski and others 2007; Wijesekara and others 2011). Many viscous-soluble polysaccharides have been correlated with hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects, while water-insoluble polysaccharides (cellulose) are mainly associated with a decrease in digestive tract transit time (Mabeau and Fleurence 1993; Løvstad Holdt and Kraan 2011). "
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