Article

Lithium induces autophagy by inhibiting inositol monophosphatase

Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2XY, England, UK.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.69). 10/2005; 170(7):1101-11. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200504035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Macroautophagy is a key pathway for the clearance of aggregate-prone cytosolic proteins. Currently, the only suitable pharmacologic strategy for up-regulating autophagy in mammalian cells is to use rapamycin, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a negative regulator of autophagy. Here we describe a novel mTOR-independent pathway that regulates autophagy. We show that lithium induces autophagy, and thereby, enhances the clearance of autophagy substrates, like mutant huntingtin and alpha-synucleins. This effect is not mediated by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibition. The autophagy-enhancing properties of lithium were mediated by inhibition of inositol monophosphatase and led to free inositol depletion. This, in turn, decreased myo-inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) levels. Our data suggest that the autophagy effect is mediated at the level of (or downstream of) lowered IP3, because it was abrogated by pharmacologic treatments that increased IP3. This novel pharmacologic strategy for autophagy induction is independent of mTOR, and may help treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, like Huntington's disease, where the toxic protein is an autophagy substrate.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sovan Sarkar, Jul 02, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
122 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the world's deadliest diseases that has afflicted humanity since ancient times. Although the number of people falling ill with TB each year is declining, its incidence in many developing countries is still a major cause of concern. Upon invading host cells by phagocytosis, M. tuberculosis can replicate within infected cells by arresting the maturation of the phagosome whose function is to target the pathogen for elimination. Host cells have mechanisms of controlling this evasion by inducing autophagy, an elaborate cellular process that targets bacteria for progressive elimination, decreasing bacterial loads within infected cells. In addition, autophagy activation also aids in the control of inflammation, contributing to a more efficient innate immune response against M. tuberculosis. Several innovative TB therapies have been envisaged based on autophagy manipulation, with some of them revealing high potential for future clinical trials and eventual implementation in healthcare systems. Thus, this review highlights the recent advances on the innate immune response regulation by autophagy upon M. tuberculosis infection and the promising new autophagy-based therapies for TB.
    DNA and cell biology 01/2015; 34(4):1-15. DOI:10.1089/dna.2014.2745 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains a major challenge to global health made worse by the spread of multidrug resistance. We therefore examined whether stimulating intracellular killing of mycobacteria through pharmacological enhancement of macroautophagy might provide a novel therapeutic strategy. Despite the resistance of MTB to killing by basal autophagy, cell-based screening of FDA-approved drugs revealed two anticonvulsants, carbamazepine and valproic acid, that were able to stimulate autophagic killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis within primary human macrophages at concentrations achievable in humans. Using a zebrafish model, we show that carbamazepine can stimulate autophagy in vivo and enhance clearance of M. marinum, while in mice infected with a highly virulent multidrug-resistant MTB strain, carbamazepine treatment reduced bacterial burden, improved lung pathology and stimulated adaptive immunity. We show that carbamazepine induces antimicrobial autophagy through a novel, evolutionarily conserved, mTOR-independent pathway controlled by cellular depletion of myo-inositol. While strain-specific differences in susceptibility to in vivo carbamazepine treatment may exist, autophagy enhancement by repurposed drugs provides an easily implementable potential therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant mycobacterial infection. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 12/2014; 7(2). DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404137 · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite active fundamental, translational and clinical research, no therapeutic intervention has yet shown convincing effects on disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Indeed, several disease-modification trials failed or proved to be inconclusive due to lack of consistency between clinical rating scales and putative surrogate markers of disease progression, or confounding symptomatic effects of the tested compound. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressing orphan disorder leading to severe motor disability within a few years. Together with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), MSA belongs to the synucleinopathies, a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein. Crucial milestones have been reached for successfully conducting clinical intervention trials in a large number of patients with MSA. In this personal view, we will review evidence, and discuss why MSA could prove the most relevant clinical model for assessing treatments that target mechanisms operating in all synucleinopathies.
    Neurobiology of Disease 07/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.03.021 · 5.20 Impact Factor