Methadone dosage and retention: an examination of the 60 mg/day threshold.
ABSTRACT A National Institutes of Health (NIH) expert panel has mentioned a daily methadone dose of at least 60 mg as a best practice in methadone maintenance. The focus of this research is to estimate the percentage of outpatient methadone clients receiving this level of methadone and examine the association between treatment retention and level of methadone dosage as recommended by the NIH expert panel. A sample of 428 methadone clients discharged from methadone treatment facilities from the Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) was used, representing 109,973 methadone clients nationally. It was estimated that more than two-thirds of methadone clients nationally were receiving below 60 mg/day. While controlling for a number of client and organizational variables, a daily methadone dose of 60 mg/day or above was found to be associated with longer retention in treatment. Exploring factors affecting the utilization of the recommended daily methadone dose remains an important issue in effective delivery of methadone treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a key risk reduction measure for controlling HIV transmission among drug users. Studies using traditional methods exist to distinguish between drop outs and nondrop outs. However, many nondrop outs use MMT discontinuously and no study has identified situation-specific factors predicting their showing or not showing up. This study used a case-crossover design comparing situation-specific factors appearing on the last episode of attendance versus those of the last episode of nonattendance. A total of 133 participants were recruited from two MMT clinics in Guangzhou, China. Participants were asked separately whether various situation-specific factors existed in the last episodes of nonattendance and attendance of MMT. Matched odds ratios (ORs) based on conditional logistic regression analysis were presented. The results showed that the participants attended the MMT clinics on average for 25 days in the last month. Situation-specific factors significantly predicting nonattendance included: (1) physical and mental health status: in illness (OR = 33.0, P < 0.001), in a bad mood (OR = 7.5, P < 0.001), and occurrence of an unhappy event (OR = 18.0, P < 0.001); (2) other engagement: work engagement (OR = 40.0, P < 0.001), trip to other places (OR = 83.0, P < 0.001), and social activities (OR = 10.0, P = 0.012); (3) interpersonal relationship: conflicts with family (OR = 19.0, P = 0.004); and (4) structural situational factors: financial difficulty (OR = 19.0, P = 0.004) and worrying about police arrest (OR = 12.0, P = 0.003). Other factors such as interaction with drug users and heroin use were marginally significant, while reduced methadone dosage was nonsignificant. Interventions to improve MMT adherence need to consider situation-specific factors. Ancillary psychosocial services should be integrated with current MMT; MMT should also provide more flexible services to the clients. Furthermore, efforts should be taken to build up interdisciplinary teams and to connect with MMT in order to provide holistic harm reduction, rehabilitation, and health care.AIDS Care 04/2014; DOI:10.1080/09540121.2014.906552 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND: Concomitant cocaine use is a major problem in clinical practice in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and may interfere with successful treatment. Data from European methadone populations is sparse. This register-based study sought to explore the association between prescribed methadone dose and concomitant cocaine and heroin use in the methadone population of Basel City. METHODS: The study included 613 methadone patients between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004. Anonymized data was taken from the methadone register of Basel City. For analysis of the prescribed methadone dose distribution, the patient sample was split into three methadone dosage groups: a low dose group (LDG) (n = 200; < 60 mg/day), a medium dose group (MDG) (n = 273; 60 to 100 mg/day), and a high dose group (HDG) (n = 140; > 100 mg/day). Concomitant drug use was based on self-report. RESULTS: Analysis showed a significant difference in self-reported cocaine use between groups (p < 0.001). Patients in the LDG reported significantly fewer cocaine consumption days compared to the MDG (p < 0.001) and the HDG (p < 0.05). Patients in the HDG reported significantly fewer heroin consumption days than those in the LDG (p < 0.01) and the MDG (p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, cocaine use was significantly associated with heroin use (OR 4.9). CONCLUSIONS: Cocaine use in methadone patients may be associated with heroin use, which indicates the importance of prescribing appropriate methadone dosages in order to indirectly reduce cocaine use.Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 12/2014; 9(1):46. DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-9-46 · 1.16 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Benzodiazepine: Uso, Abuso e Dipendenza.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Benzodiazepine: uso, abuso e dipendenza Dall'epidemiologia al trattamento 2013 VERONA EDIZIONI CLAD-ONLUS WWW.MEDICINADIPENDENZE.ITConvegno nazionale "Benzodiazepine: Uso, Abuso e Dipendenza." Verona 2013; 10/2013