Severe anemia and neutropenia associated with hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia.

Second Department of Pediatrics, P & A Kyriakou Children's Hospital, Athens,Greece.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (Impact Factor: 0.96). 10/2005; 27(9):477-80. DOI: 10.1097/01.mph.0000179958.19524.9c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Calprotectin, also known as the S100A8/A9 or MRP8/14 complex, is a major calcium-binding protein in the cytosol of neutrophils, monocytes, and keratinocytes. It differs from other S100 proteins in its zinc-binding capacity. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with severe anemia, neutropenia, inflammation, and severe growth failure. Bone marrow examination showed moderate dyserythropoiesis. No hemolysis, iron deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, immunologic diseases, or autoantibodies were detected. Serum levels of copper and ceruloplasmin were within the normal range, although the serum zinc concentration was markedly increased (310 microg/dL). Urinary zinc excretion and erythrocyte zinc concentrations were within the normal range. Family studies showed normal zinc and copper plasma levels. The patient's plasma calprotectin concentration showed a 6,000-fold increase (2,900 mg/L) compared with normal values. The calprotectin concentration is known to be elevated in many inflammatory conditions but is generally below 10 mg/L and thus far below the levels reported in this patient. The authors describe this case as an inborn error of zinc metabolism caused by dysregulation of calprotectin metabolism, which mainly presented with the features of microcytic anemia and inflammation.

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    ABSTRACT: A girl suffering from a rare syndrome of unknown aetiology, termed hypercalprotectinaemia, was evaluated for tissue zinc status, because calprotectin is a protein which chelates Zn at multiple binding-sites, which might have affected the distribution of Zn in her body. Measurement of serum, urine, hair and nail zinc (Zn) concentration, complemented with measurement of total Zn in ultrafiltrates of plasma. Her serum Zn concentration was 105-133 μmol/L. Zn levels in her hair (102 μg/g), nail (90 μg/g) and urine (3-12 μmol/L; 20-80 μg/dL) were all at the lower end of the reference intervals described in the sparse literature. Zn concentrations in ultrafiltrates of plasma were below the detection limit (<100 nmol/L). Thus, the elevated serum Zn did not translate into a similarly increased level of Zn in any of the tissues tested, nor in free Zn concentrations. Instead it appeared to be a result of Zn being chelated to binder proteins, most probably calprotectin. Her grossly elevated serum calprotectin concentration is probably able to raise circulating total Zn concentrations without raising ionized concentrations, but this Zn remains confined to the circulating blood as well as to excreted body fluids, particularly faeces.
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    ABSTRACT: Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein of the S100 family expressed mainly by neutrophils with important extracellular activity. The aim of the current review is to summarize the latest findings concerning the role of CP in a diverse range of inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions among children. Increasing evidence suggests the implication of CP in the diagnosis, followup, assessment of relapses, and response to treatment in pediatric pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, celiac disease, intestinal cystic fibrosis, acute appendicitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, malaria, HIV infection, hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia, and cancer. Further studies are required to provide insights into the actual role of CP in these pathological processes in pediatrics.
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