Severe anemia and neutropenia associated with hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia
ABSTRACT Calprotectin, also known as the S100A8/A9 or MRP8/14 complex, is a major calcium-binding protein in the cytosol of neutrophils, monocytes, and keratinocytes. It differs from other S100 proteins in its zinc-binding capacity. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with severe anemia, neutropenia, inflammation, and severe growth failure. Bone marrow examination showed moderate dyserythropoiesis. No hemolysis, iron deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, immunologic diseases, or autoantibodies were detected. Serum levels of copper and ceruloplasmin were within the normal range, although the serum zinc concentration was markedly increased (310 microg/dL). Urinary zinc excretion and erythrocyte zinc concentrations were within the normal range. Family studies showed normal zinc and copper plasma levels. The patient's plasma calprotectin concentration showed a 6,000-fold increase (2,900 mg/L) compared with normal values. The calprotectin concentration is known to be elevated in many inflammatory conditions but is generally below 10 mg/L and thus far below the levels reported in this patient. The authors describe this case as an inborn error of zinc metabolism caused by dysregulation of calprotectin metabolism, which mainly presented with the features of microcytic anemia and inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein of the S100 family expressed mainly by neutrophils with important extracellular activity. The aim of the current review is to summarize the latest findings concerning the role of CP in a diverse range of inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions among children. Increasing evidence suggests the implication of CP in the diagnosis, followup, assessment of relapses, and response to treatment in pediatric pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, celiac disease, intestinal cystic fibrosis, acute appendicitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, malaria, HIV infection, hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia, and cancer. Further studies are required to provide insights into the actual role of CP in these pathological processes in pediatrics.09/2013; 2013:542363. DOI:10.1155/2013/542363
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ABSTRACT: Metals are required cofactors for numerous fundamental processes that are essential to both pathogen and host. They are coordinated in enzymes responsible for DNA replication and transcription, relief from oxidative stress, and cellular respiration. However, excess transition metals can be toxic due to their ability to cause spontaneous, redox cycling and disrupt normal metabolic processes. Vertebrates have evolved intricate mechanisms to limit the availability of some crucial metals while concurrently flooding sites of infection with antimicrobial concentrations of other metals. To compete for limited metal within the host while simultaneously preventing metal toxicity, pathogens have developed a series of metal regulatory, acquisition, and efflux systems. This review will cover the mechanisms by which pathogenic bacteria recognize and respond to host-induced metal scarcity and toxicity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEMS microbiology reviews 09/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1111/1574-6976.12087 · 13.81 Impact Factor
Acta Paediatrica 06/2009; 98(6):1071-1072. DOI:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01101.x · 1.84 Impact Factor