Severe anemia and neutropenia associated with hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia
ABSTRACT Calprotectin, also known as the S100A8/A9 or MRP8/14 complex, is a major calcium-binding protein in the cytosol of neutrophils, monocytes, and keratinocytes. It differs from other S100 proteins in its zinc-binding capacity. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with severe anemia, neutropenia, inflammation, and severe growth failure. Bone marrow examination showed moderate dyserythropoiesis. No hemolysis, iron deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, immunologic diseases, or autoantibodies were detected. Serum levels of copper and ceruloplasmin were within the normal range, although the serum zinc concentration was markedly increased (310 microg/dL). Urinary zinc excretion and erythrocyte zinc concentrations were within the normal range. Family studies showed normal zinc and copper plasma levels. The patient's plasma calprotectin concentration showed a 6,000-fold increase (2,900 mg/L) compared with normal values. The calprotectin concentration is known to be elevated in many inflammatory conditions but is generally below 10 mg/L and thus far below the levels reported in this patient. The authors describe this case as an inborn error of zinc metabolism caused by dysregulation of calprotectin metabolism, which mainly presented with the features of microcytic anemia and inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Calprotectin (S100A8/A9), a heterodimer of the two calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9, was originally discovered as immunogenic protein expressed and secreted by neutrophils. Subsequently, it has emerged as important pro-inflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation. More recently, increased S100A8 and S100A9 levels were also detected in various human cancers, presenting abundant expression in neoplastic tumor cells as well as infiltrating immune cells. Although, many possible functions have been proposed for S100A8/A9, its biological role still remains to be defined. Altogether, its expression and potential cytokine-like function in inflammation and in cancer suggests that S100A8/A9 may play a key role in inflammation-associated cancer.Biochemical Pharmacology 12/2006; 72(11):1622-31. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.05.017 · 4.65 Impact Factor
- Acta Paediatrica 06/2009; 98(6):1071-1072. DOI:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01101.x · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nearly 12% of children and 6% of adults in Canada have been diagnosed with asthma. Although in most patients symptoms are controlled by inhaled steroids, a subpopulation (approximately 10%) characterized by excessive airway neutrophilia, is refractory to treatment; these patients exhibit severe disease, and account for more than 50% of asthma health care costs. These numbers underscore the need to better understand the biology of severe asthma and identify pro-asthma mediators released by cells, such as neutrophils, that are unresponsive to common steroid therapy. This review focuses on a unique protein complex consisting of S100A8 and S100A9. These subunits belong to the large Ca2+-binding S100 protein family and are some of the most abundant proteins in neutrophils and macrophages. S100A8/A9 is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein complex released in abundance in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer, but there are no definitive studies on its role in inflammation and obstructive airways disease. Two receptors for S100A8/A9, the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), are expressed in lung. TLR4 is linked with innate immunity that programs local airway inflammation, and RAGE participates in mediating fibroproliferative remodeling in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. S100A8/A9 can induce cell proliferation, or apoptosis, inflammation, collagen synthesis, and cell migration. We hypothesize that this capacity suggests S100A8/A9 could underpin chronic airway inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma by inducing effector responses of resident and infiltrating airway cells. This review highlights some key issues related to this hypothesis and provides a template for future research.Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 10/2009; 87(10):743-55. DOI:10.1139/Y09-054 · 1.55 Impact Factor