Calprotectin, also known as the S100A8/A9 or MRP8/14 complex, is a major calcium-binding protein in the cytosol of neutrophils, monocytes, and keratinocytes. It differs from other S100 proteins in its zinc-binding capacity. The authors describe a 4-year-old girl with severe anemia, neutropenia, inflammation, and severe growth failure. Bone marrow examination showed moderate dyserythropoiesis. No hemolysis, iron deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, immunologic diseases, or autoantibodies were detected. Serum levels of copper and ceruloplasmin were within the normal range, although the serum zinc concentration was markedly increased (310 microg/dL). Urinary zinc excretion and erythrocyte zinc concentrations were within the normal range. Family studies showed normal zinc and copper plasma levels. The patient's plasma calprotectin concentration showed a 6,000-fold increase (2,900 mg/L) compared with normal values. The calprotectin concentration is known to be elevated in many inflammatory conditions but is generally below 10 mg/L and thus far below the levels reported in this patient. The authors describe this case as an inborn error of zinc metabolism caused by dysregulation of calprotectin metabolism, which mainly presented with the features of microcytic anemia and inflammation.
"A possible heritable disorder of CP metabolism was observed in an infant with hypercalprotectinemia/hyperzincemia and systemic inflammation . There is also a reported case of microcytic anemia and inflammation caused by an inborn error of zinc metabolism due to a dysregulation of CP metabolism . Cyclosporine A has been shown to be effective against hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein of the S100 family expressed mainly by neutrophils with important extracellular activity. The aim of the current review is to summarize the latest findings concerning the role of CP in a diverse range of inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions among children. Increasing evidence suggests the implication of CP in the diagnosis, followup, assessment of relapses, and response to treatment in pediatric pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, celiac disease, intestinal cystic fibrosis, acute appendicitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, malaria, HIV infection, hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia, and cancer. Further studies are required to provide insights into the actual role of CP in these pathological processes in pediatrics.
"They lead to baseline zinc plasma levels above 300 μg/100 mL, more than three times the physiological level, while iron and copper levels stay normal [171–173]. Even though this exceeds the amount normally found in serum after zinc intoxication, symptoms range from none to severe anemia, growth failure, and systemic inflammation, and resemble zinc deficiency rather than chronic or acute intoxication [172–175]. The elevated zinc levels have been attributed to excessive binding to serum proteins, e.g., by albumin [171,173], or to overexpression of the zinc-binding S100 protein calprotectin [172,174]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared to several other metal ions with similar chemical properties, zinc is relatively harmless. Only exposure to high doses has toxic effects, making acute zinc intoxication a rare event. In addition to acute intoxication, long-term, high-dose zinc supplementation interferes with the uptake of copper. Hence, many of its toxic effects are in fact due to copper deficiency. While systemic homeostasis and efficient regulatory mechanisms on the cellular level generally prevent the uptake of cytotoxic doses of exogenous zinc, endogenous zinc plays a significant role in cytotoxic events in single cells. Here, zinc influences apoptosis by acting on several molecular regulators of programmed cell death, including caspases and proteins from the Bcl and Bax families. One organ where zinc is prominently involved in cell death is the brain, and cytotoxicity in consequence of ischemia or trauma involves the accumulation of free zinc. Rather than being a toxic metal ion, zinc is an essential trace element. Whereas intoxication by excessive exposure is rare, zinc deficiency is widespread and has a detrimental impact on growth, neuronal development, and immunity, and in severe cases its consequences are lethal. Zinc deficiency caused by malnutrition and foods with low bioavailability, aging, certain diseases, or deregulated homeostasis is a far more common risk to human health than intoxication.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 04/2010; 7(4):1342-65. DOI:10.3390/ijerph7041342 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calprotectin (S100A8/A9), a heterodimer of the two calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9, was originally discovered as immunogenic protein expressed and secreted by neutrophils. Subsequently, it has emerged as important pro-inflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation. More recently, increased S100A8 and S100A9 levels were also detected in various human cancers, presenting abundant expression in neoplastic tumor cells as well as infiltrating immune cells. Although, many possible functions have been proposed for S100A8/A9, its biological role still remains to be defined. Altogether, its expression and potential cytokine-like function in inflammation and in cancer suggests that S100A8/A9 may play a key role in inflammation-associated cancer.
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