Perfluorinated Sulfonamides in Indoor and Outdoor Air and Indoor Dust: Occurrence, Partitioning, and Human Exposure

Lancaster University, Lancaster, England, United Kingdom
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 10/2005; 39(17):6599-606. DOI: 10.1021/es048340y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Perfluorinated alkyl sulfonamides (PFASs) which are used in a variety of consumer products for surface protection were investigated through a comprehensive survey of indoor air, house dust, and outdoor air in the city of Ottawa, Canada. This study revealed new information regarding the occurrence and indoor air source strength of several PFASs including N-methylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (MeFOSE), N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA), and N-methylperfluorooctane sulfonamidethylacrylate (MeFOSEA). Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam disks were calibrated and used to conduct the indoor and outdoor survey. Indoor air concentrations for MeFOSE and EtFOSE (1490 and 740 pg m(-3), respectively) were about 10-20 times greater than outdoor concentrations, establishing indoor air as an important source to the outside environment. EtFOSA and MeFOSEA concentrations were lower in indoor air (40 and 29 pg m(-3) respectively) and below detection in outdoor air samples. For indoor dust, highest concentrations were recorded for MeFOSE and EtFOSE with geometric mean concentrations of 110 and 120 ng g(-1), while concentrations for EtFOSA and MeFOSEA were below detection and 7.9 ng g(-1) respectively. MeFOSE and EtFOSE concentrations in house dust followed levels in indoor air. However, resolution of the coupled air and dust data (for the same homes) was not successful using existing KoA-based models for surface-air exchange. The partitioning to house dust was greatly underpredicted. The difficulties with existing models may be due to the high activity coefficient of PFASs in octanol and/or a situation where the dust is greatly oversaturated with respect to the air due to components of the dust being contaminated with PFASs. A human exposure assessment based on median air and dust concentrations revealed that human exposure through inhalation (100% absorption assumed) and dust ingestion were approximately 40 and approximately 20 ng d(-1), respectively. However, for children the dust ingestion pathway was dominant and accounted for approximately 44 ng d(-1).

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Available from: Tom Harner, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Some studies simultaneously measured airborne concentrations of SVOCs (C s þ C sp ) and X dust (Bradman et al., 2006; Bradman, 2009; Batterman et al., 2009; Morgan et al., 2004; Kanazawa et al., 2010). One study measured C sp and X dust (Fromme et al., 2005), and others measured C s and X dust (Abdallah et al., 2008; Bennett et al., 2014; Gevao et al., 2007; Harrad et al., 2009; Imm et al., 2009; Shoeib et al., 2005; Toms et al., 2009; Tue et al., 2013; Wilford et al., 2004, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their low vapor pressure, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) can absorb onto other compartments in indoor environments, including settled dust. Incidental ingestion of settled dust-bound SVOCs contributes to the majority of daily non-dietary exposure to some SVOCs by human beings. With this pathway in mind, an integrated kinetic model to estimate indoor SVOC was developed to better predict the mass-fraction of SVOC associated with settled dust, which is important to accurately assess the non-dietary ingestion exposure to SVOC. In this integrated kinetic model, the aerosol dynamics were considered, including particle penetration, deposition and resuspension. The newly developed model was evaluated by comparing the predicted mass-fraction of SVOC associated with the settled dust (Xdust) and the measured Xdust from previous studies. Sixty Xdust values of thirty-eight different SVOCs measured in residences located in seven countries from four continents were involved in the model evaluation. The Xdust value predicted by the integrated kinetic model correlated linearly with the measured Xdust: y = 0.93x + 0.09 (R2 = 0.73), which indicates that the predicted Xdust by the integrated kinetic model are in good match with the measured data. This model may be utilized to predict SVOC concentrations in different indoor compartments, including dust-bound SVOC.
    Atmospheric Environment 04/2015; 107. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.076 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    • "Polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in wildlife (Giesy and Kannan, 2001), human serum (Hansen et al., 2001) and in various environmental compartments (Shoeib et al., 2005; Ahrens, 2011; Sepulvado et al., 2011a). "
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    ABSTRACT: The continuous production and use in certain parts of the world of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide derivatives that can degrade to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) has called for better understanding of the environmental fate of these PFOS precursors. Aerobic soil biotransformation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA, also known as Sulfluramid) was quantitatively investigated in semi-closed soil microcosms over 182 d for the first time. The apparent soil half-life of EtFOSA was 13.9 ± 2.1 d and the yield to PFOS by the end of incubation was 4.0 mol%. A positive identification of a previously suspected degradation product, EtFOSA alcohol, provided strong evidence to determine degradation pathways. The lower mass balance in sterile soil than live soil suggested likely strong irreversible sorption of EtFOSA to the test soil. The aerobic soil biotransformation of a technical grade N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE) was semi-quantitatively examined, and the degradation pathways largely followed those in activated sludge and marine sediments. Aside from PFOS, major degradation products included N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetic acid (FOSAA). This study confirms that aerobic soil biotransformation of EtFOSE and EtFOSA contributes significantly to the PFOS observed in soil environment, as well as to several highly persistent sulfonamide derivatives frequently detected in biosolid-amended soils and landfill leachates.
    Chemosphere 01/2015; 119:1084-1090. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.059 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Almost no data exist on the toxicity of other PFCs including longer-chain length (NC8) PFCs and a multitude of precursor compounds such as fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorinated sulfonamides (FOSAs) and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Over the past few years, research examining PFC exposure pathways has increased dramatically with detectable levels being found in indoor air (Barber et al., 2007; Haug et al., 2011b; Shoeib et al., 2005, 2011), indoor dust (Björklund et al., 2009; Goosey and Harrad, 2011; Kato et al., "
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to characterize levels of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust from offices, homes, and vehicles; to investigate factors that may affect PFC levels in dust; and to examine the associations between PFCs in dust and office workers' serum. Dust samples were collected in 2009 from offices, homes, and vehicles of 31 individuals in Boston, MA and analyzed for nineteen PFCs, including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Serum was collected from each participant and analyzed for eight PFCs including PFOA and PFOS. Perfluorononanoate, PFOA, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorohexanoate, PFOS and 8:2 FTOH had detection frequencies >50% in dust from all three microenvironments. The highest geometric mean concentration in office dust was for 8:2 FTOH (309ng/g), while PFOS was highest in homes (26.9ng/g) and vehicles (15.8ng/g). Overall, offices had the highest PFC concentrations, particularly for longer-chain carboxylic acids and FTOHs. Perfluorobutyrate was prevalent in homes and vehicles, but not offices. PFOA serum concentrations were not associated with PFC dust levels after adjusting for PFC concentrations in office air. Dust concentrations of most PFCs are higher in offices than in homes and vehicles. However, indoor dust may not be a significant source of exposure to PFCs for office workers. This finding suggests that our previously published observation of an association between FTOH concentrations in office air and PFOA concentrations in office workers was not due to confounding by PFCs in dust.
    Environment international 09/2013; 60C:128-136. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.012 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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