In October and November 2004, 91 spice samples (70 ground red pepper, six black pepper, five white pepper, five spice mix and five chilli samples), the majority of which originated from commercial outlets, were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Eighteen of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained AFB1, seven of them in a concentration exceeding the 'maximum level' of 5 microg kg(-1) (range 6.1-15.7 microg kg(-1)). Of the other spices assayed, the AFB1 contamination of one chilli sample exceeded 5 microg kg(-1) (8.1 microg kg(-1)). Thirty-two of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained OTA, eight of them in a concentration exceeding the 10 microg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 10.6-66.2 microg kg(-1)). One chilli sample was contaminated with OTA at 2.1 microg kg(-1). The AFB1 and OTA contamination of ground red pepper exceeding the 'maximum level' (5 and 10 microg kg(-1), respectively) was obviously the consequence of mixing imported ground red pepper batches heavily contaminated with AFB1 and OTA with red pepper produced in Hungary. This case calls attention to the importance of consistently screening imported batches of ground red pepper for aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content and strictly prohibiting the use of batches containing mycotoxin concentrations exceeding the maximum permitted level.
"The beef luncheon and beef burger we tested were made from meat of ruminants, which have a higher tolerance to OTA exposure than non-ruminants because protozoa in the rumen are able to degrade OTA into ochratoxin a and other less toxic metabolites (Fink-Gremmels, 2008). Therefore, the high contamination rates of these meat products with OTA might be attributed to the growth of OTA-producing fungi on the surface of processed meat products (Iacumin et al., 2009) or more likely from the addition of non-meat additives like cereals and spices (Fazekas et al., 2005; European Commission, 2002). It is difficult to remove or reduce OTA once it is introduced because it is moderately stable and is unaffected by most processes of food storage and preparation (Schiavone et al., 2008) including heating (Monaci, Palmisano, Matrella, & Tantillo, 2005). "
"However, the moulds' ability to produce mycotoxins is greatly influenced by environmental factors, of which the most important are temperature, relative humidity, insect damage, drought and inadequate storage conditions (Miraglia et al., 2009; Prandini et al., 2009). Contamination of spices with aflatoxins (AFs) and/or ochratoxin A (OTA) has been reported in several countries (such as Turkey, Hungary, Malaysia , Spain, India, Pakistan) (Aydin et al., 2007; Fazekas et al., 2005; Jalili et al., 2010; Paterson, 2007; Reddy et al., 2001; Santos et al., 2010). Only a very recent study reports the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in pepper (Yogendrarajah et al., 2014a) and chilli (Yogendrarajah et al., 2014b) from Sri Lanka, the two most widely used spices in Sri Lankan cuisine. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A quantitative risk assessment of mycotoxins due to the consumption of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was performed in Sri Lanka. A food frequency questionnaire was administered in order to collect the data on consumption of spices by households in the Northern and Southern region (n=249). The mean chilli consumption in the North was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to the South. Mean exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the North (3.49 ng/kg BW/day) and South (2.13 ng/kg BW/day) have exceeded the tolerable daily intake due to chilli consumption at the lower bound scenario, while exposure to OTA was small. Dietary exposure to other mycotoxins, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, sterigmatocystin and citrinin due to spices were estimated. Margin of exposure estimations at the mean exposure to AFB1 were remarkably lower due to chilli (45-78) than for pepper (2315-10857). Moreover, the hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) risk associated with the mean AFB1 exposure through chilli at the lower bound was 0.046 and 0.028 HCC cases/year/100,000 based on the North and South consumption, respectively. AFB1 exposure via chilli should be considered as a great public health concern in Sri Lanka due to both high mycotoxin concentration and high consumption.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 10/2014; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.10.007 · 2.90 Impact Factor
", several studies (Abdulkadar et al., 2004; Bircan, 2005; Colak et al., 2006; Fazekas et al., 2005; Golge et al., 2013; Iqbal et al., 2011; Jalili & Jinap, 2012; Kursun & Mutlu, 2010; Martins et al., 2001; Musaiger et al., 2008; Omurtag et al., 2002; O'Riordan & Wilkinson, 2008; Ozbey & Kabak, 2012; Reddy et al., 2001, 2011; Romagnoli et al., 2007; Santos et al., 2010; Shundo et al., 2009; Tosun & Arslan, 2013) reported the AFB 1 contamination in different kinds of spices. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that include chilli powder (n = 12), black pepper powder (n = 12) and whole black pepper (n = 12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to analyse AFB1 in the samples. All the analyses were done twice. AFB1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit, that is 5000 ng/kg (5 µg/kg) of European Union regulations for AFB1. Although, the present research was not a comprehensive study; however, it provides valuable information on AFB1 levels in Iranian and Indian spices.
P.A. Colombo, A. Christodoulidou, F. Lodi, C. Smeraldi, A.M. Rincon, A. Tard, S. Tasiopoulou, C. Roncancio
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