Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content of spices in Hungary.
ABSTRACT In October and November 2004, 91 spice samples (70 ground red pepper, six black pepper, five white pepper, five spice mix and five chilli samples), the majority of which originated from commercial outlets, were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Eighteen of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained AFB1, seven of them in a concentration exceeding the 'maximum level' of 5 microg kg(-1) (range 6.1-15.7 microg kg(-1)). Of the other spices assayed, the AFB1 contamination of one chilli sample exceeded 5 microg kg(-1) (8.1 microg kg(-1)). Thirty-two of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained OTA, eight of them in a concentration exceeding the 10 microg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 10.6-66.2 microg kg(-1)). One chilli sample was contaminated with OTA at 2.1 microg kg(-1). The AFB1 and OTA contamination of ground red pepper exceeding the 'maximum level' (5 and 10 microg kg(-1), respectively) was obviously the consequence of mixing imported ground red pepper batches heavily contaminated with AFB1 and OTA with red pepper produced in Hungary. This case calls attention to the importance of consistently screening imported batches of ground red pepper for aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content and strictly prohibiting the use of batches containing mycotoxin concentrations exceeding the maximum permitted level.
- SourceAvailable from: Mustafa Ardic[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Deep-red ground pepper, a variety of red ground pepper, is a special spices belonging to Sanliurfa and consumed both in Sanliurfa and other provinces of Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) levels of deep-red ground pepper. For this purpose, 75 samples of deep-red ground pepper (isot) marketed in Sanliurfa (Turkey) were purchased from bazaars and herbal shops. The occurrence and concentration range of AFB(1) in the samples were investigated by microtitre plate Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method using immunoaffinity columns. Seventy-two of the 75 ground deep-red pepper samples (96%) contained AFB(1) in the range of 0.11-24.7 microg/kg. Eleven (14.7%) samples were above the regulatory limits used in the European Union and in Turkey. More precaution should be taken on hygiene controls in order to prevent microbiological and chemical hazards.Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2008; 46(5):1596-9. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2007.12.025 · 2.61 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract This article brings an overview of mycotoxin co-occurrence in foods in Croatia and neighbouring countries and experimental data from mycotoxin interaction studies involving Fusarium toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Only a few studies of combined mycotoxin toxicity have employed a mathematical/ statistical design, while others have used common statistics in order to compare the effects of mycotoxin mixtures with effects of single toxins. So far, most studies have observed additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures pose a significant threat to human and animal health.Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 12/2012; 63(4):519-530. DOI:10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2299 · 0.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Premixes for medicated feedstuffs are considered to be veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) prepared in advance with a view to the subsequent manufacture of medicated feedstuffs. Medicated feedstuffs should be prepared only from market authorized premixes and premixes for medicated feedstuffs can be used only as prescribed medicines. Apart from active substances, premixes contain carriers which have a role in the homogenization of medicated feedstuffs. Wheat bran as a carrier may be a source of different, potentially harmful or toxic substances e.g. afl atoxin. In our study, 15 different batches of premixes with a wheat bran component were tested for afl atoxin B1 (AFB1) by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The samples tested showed contamination with AFB1 ranging from 1.5 to 35 ng/g (mean = 18.79 ng/g). However, no correlation between AFB1 levels and the month of collection or season of production was observed. Considering the composition of the premix, the only possible source of contamination with AFB1 was wheat bran. Contamination probably occurred before the production of the premix, probably in the fi eld or during storage. Concentrations of active substances and citric acid (a neutralising agent for mycotoxins) were in accordance with the producer’s declaration. Our discovery of AFB1 in the tested premixes was in contravention of the defi nition and primary role of veterinary medicinal products. In this study, we would like to highlight the need for monitoring raw materials of biological origin for premix production. Even though carriers are not pharmacologically active substances, an effi cient method for controlling potential contaminants such as mycotoxins or their toxic components should be proposed, with the aim of protecting animal health, consumers, employees and end-users in the production of veterinary medicinal products.Veterinarski Arhiv 01/2012; 82(2):155-166. · 0.30 Impact Factor