Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content of spices in Hungary.

Central Veterinary Institute, Institute of Debrecen, Bornemissza u. 3-5, H-4031 Debrecen, Hungary.
Food Additives and Contaminants (Impact Factor: 2.13). 10/2005; 22(9):856-63. DOI: 10.1080/02652030500198027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In October and November 2004, 91 spice samples (70 ground red pepper, six black pepper, five white pepper, five spice mix and five chilli samples), the majority of which originated from commercial outlets, were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Eighteen of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained AFB1, seven of them in a concentration exceeding the 'maximum level' of 5 microg kg(-1) (range 6.1-15.7 microg kg(-1)). Of the other spices assayed, the AFB1 contamination of one chilli sample exceeded 5 microg kg(-1) (8.1 microg kg(-1)). Thirty-two of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained OTA, eight of them in a concentration exceeding the 10 microg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 10.6-66.2 microg kg(-1)). One chilli sample was contaminated with OTA at 2.1 microg kg(-1). The AFB1 and OTA contamination of ground red pepper exceeding the 'maximum level' (5 and 10 microg kg(-1), respectively) was obviously the consequence of mixing imported ground red pepper batches heavily contaminated with AFB1 and OTA with red pepper produced in Hungary. This case calls attention to the importance of consistently screening imported batches of ground red pepper for aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content and strictly prohibiting the use of batches containing mycotoxin concentrations exceeding the maximum permitted level.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fungi are commonly present in the environment and can grow under favorable conditions on an extensive variety of substrates. During harvesting, handling, storage, and distribution, agricultural commodities are subjected to infection by toxigenic molds, which may cause spoilage and produce toxic metabolites called mycotoxins. Fungal contamination of various food commodities with consequent exposure of the community to mycotoxins is a hazard that may exist depending on environmental factors, crop health, and soil conditions. Mycotoxins represent serious consequences due to substantial economic loss and risk to health. The environmental conditions of Pakistan with its mostly warm temperature are conducive to growth of toxigenic fungi resulting in mycotoxin production in different food items. Moreover, the poor conditions of storage and deficiency in regulatory measures in food quality control worsen the situation in the country. This review encompasses mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Pakistan. High concentrations of mycotoxins are found in some commodities that are used on a daily basis in Pakistan, which may be a concern depending on dietary variety and health conditions of individuals in the population. Therefore, the mycotoxin contamination of foodstuff with exceeding levels represents a serious health hazard for the local population. There is a need to conduct more studies to analyze mycotoxin occurrence in all types of food commodities throughout the country. For consumer safety and the country's economy, the regulatory authorities should take into account this issue of contamination, and control strategies should be implemented and the quality control system of food improved.
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 12/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that include chilli powder (n = 12), black pepper powder (n = 12) and whole black pepper (n = 12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to analyse AFB1 in the samples. All the analyses were done twice. AFB1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit, that is 5000 ng/kg (5 µg/kg) of European Union regulations for AFB1. Although, the present research was not a comprehensive study; however, it provides valuable information on AFB1 levels in Iranian and Indian spices.
    Toxin Reviews 08/2014; · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A quantitative risk assessment of mycotoxins due to the consumption of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was performed in Sri Lanka. A food frequency questionnaire was administered in order to collect the data on consumption of spices by households in the Northern and Southern region (n=249). The mean chilli consumption in the North was significantly higher (P<0.001) compared to the South. Mean exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the North (3.49 ng/kg BW/day) and South (2.13 ng/kg BW/day) have exceeded the tolerable daily intake due to chilli consumption at the lower bound scenario, while exposure to OTA was small. Dietary exposure to other mycotoxins, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, sterigmatocystin and citrinin due to spices were estimated. Margin of exposure estimations at the mean exposure to AFB1 were remarkably lower due to chilli (45-78) than for pepper (2315-10857). Moreover, the hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) risk associated with the mean AFB1 exposure through chilli at the lower bound was 0.046 and 0.028 HCC cases/year/100,000 based on the North and South consumption, respectively. AFB1 exposure via chilli should be considered as a great public health concern in Sri Lanka due to both high mycotoxin concentration and high consumption.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 10/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor