Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content of spices in Hungary.
ABSTRACT In October and November 2004, 91 spice samples (70 ground red pepper, six black pepper, five white pepper, five spice mix and five chilli samples), the majority of which originated from commercial outlets, were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Eighteen of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained AFB1, seven of them in a concentration exceeding the 'maximum level' of 5 microg kg(-1) (range 6.1-15.7 microg kg(-1)). Of the other spices assayed, the AFB1 contamination of one chilli sample exceeded 5 microg kg(-1) (8.1 microg kg(-1)). Thirty-two of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained OTA, eight of them in a concentration exceeding the 10 microg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 10.6-66.2 microg kg(-1)). One chilli sample was contaminated with OTA at 2.1 microg kg(-1). The AFB1 and OTA contamination of ground red pepper exceeding the 'maximum level' (5 and 10 microg kg(-1), respectively) was obviously the consequence of mixing imported ground red pepper batches heavily contaminated with AFB1 and OTA with red pepper produced in Hungary. This case calls attention to the importance of consistently screening imported batches of ground red pepper for aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content and strictly prohibiting the use of batches containing mycotoxin concentrations exceeding the maximum permitted level.
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Article: [Mycotoxins in spices].[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since antiquity, spices have been used for flavoring foods and beverages and for medication. They play an important role in the national economy of several of the producing, exporting and importing countries. Tropical climatic conditions under which spices are grown offer a favorable environment for the fungal and mycotoxin contamination. This review summarized information from 44 reports on the occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins zearalenone, fumonisins, trichothecenes) and their levels in different spices. Aflatoxins which are highly carcinogenic compounds, produced by A. flavus and A. parasiticus, are the leading toxins present in red peppers (paprika, chilli, cayenne) nutmeg, mustard, ginger, black and white peppers, coriander. Ochratoxins have been reported also as a natural contaminants in many spices. Although the levels of mycotoxins are generally low when compared with other food products, the testing of spices (imported and domestic) by regulatory agencies seems to be in need of expansion.Voprosy pitaniia 02/2000; 69(6):40-3.
Article: Determination of aflatoxins in beer.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were determined at parts-per-trillion levels in beer by immunoaffinity column cleanup and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection after trifluoroacetic acid derivatization. Silanized vials were necessary for the evaporation step in order to obtain good recoveries of aflatoxins from spiked beer samples. Recoveries averaged 90-104%, 94%, 84-87%, and 89% for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, respectively, at levels of 9.7-133 ng B1, 46 ng B2, 35-140 ng G1, and 41 ng G2/L. Detection limits were 19-20 ng/L for aflatoxins B1 and G1 and 15-16 ng/L for aflatoxins B2 and G2 (signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1) obtained by using an excitation wavelength of 360 nm; at 340 nm these detection limits were lowered to about 2 ng/L. Analysis of 24 beer samples, the majority from the United States and Mexico, showed natural contamination of one sample of Mexican beer at 49 ng B1/L when determined at 360 nm excitation, but reanalysis of 23 of the samples using 340 nm excitation indicated that an additional 4 Mexican samples and one Brazilian sample contained aflatoxin B1 at low levels (< 10 ng/L).Journal of AOAC International 01/1997; 80(6):1229-34. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OA) is a nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. It has been found mainly in cereal grains and coffee beans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of OA in cereal grains and in coffee imported to the United States. A modified liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determining OA in green coffee was applied to wheat, barley, green coffee, and roasted coffee. The test sample was extracted with methanol-1% NaHCO3 (7 + 3), and the extract was filtered. The filtrate was diluted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), filtered, and passed through an immunoaffinity column. After the column was washed with PBS and then with water, OA was eluted with methanol. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and the residue was dissolved in acetonitrile-water (1 + 1). OA was separated on a reversed-phase C18 LC column with acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (55 + 45 + 1) as eluant and quantitated with a fluorescence detector. Recoveries of OA from the 4 commodities spiked over the range 1-4 ng/g were 71-96%. The limit of detection was about 0.03 ng/g. OA contamination at > 0.03 ng/g was found in 56 of 383 wheat samples, 11 of 103 barley samples, 9 of 19 green coffee samples, and 9 of 13 roasted coffee samples. None of the coffee samples contained OA at > 5 ng/g; only 4 samples of wheat and 1 sample of barley were contaminated above this level.Journal of AOAC International 82(1):85-9. · 1.39 Impact Factor