Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content of spices in Hungary.
ABSTRACT In October and November 2004, 91 spice samples (70 ground red pepper, six black pepper, five white pepper, five spice mix and five chilli samples), the majority of which originated from commercial outlets, were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) content by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Eighteen of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained AFB1, seven of them in a concentration exceeding the 'maximum level' of 5 microg kg(-1) (range 6.1-15.7 microg kg(-1)). Of the other spices assayed, the AFB1 contamination of one chilli sample exceeded 5 microg kg(-1) (8.1 microg kg(-1)). Thirty-two of the 70 ground red pepper samples contained OTA, eight of them in a concentration exceeding the 10 microg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 10.6-66.2 microg kg(-1)). One chilli sample was contaminated with OTA at 2.1 microg kg(-1). The AFB1 and OTA contamination of ground red pepper exceeding the 'maximum level' (5 and 10 microg kg(-1), respectively) was obviously the consequence of mixing imported ground red pepper batches heavily contaminated with AFB1 and OTA with red pepper produced in Hungary. This case calls attention to the importance of consistently screening imported batches of ground red pepper for aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content and strictly prohibiting the use of batches containing mycotoxin concentrations exceeding the maximum permitted level.
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ABSTRACT: Eighteen samples of spices (6 whole chilli, 6 whole black pepper, and 6 black pepper powder) purchased from three popular markets of Hyderabad in India were analysed for presence of aflatoxin B1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for the purpose of analysing the samples. All the analyses were done twice. Aflatoxin B1 was found in all of the samples and the concentration of aflatoxin ranged from 31.15 to 174.68 ng/kg. The mean AFB1 concentration in black pepper powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in whole chilli and black pepper powder. There was no significant difference between the mean AFB1 concentrations in whole chilli and black pepper powder. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum limit of 5000ng/kg prescribed in European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1. There is considerable scope for betterment in spices production in India.Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 12/2013; 7(4):3219-3223. · 0.05 Impact Factor
Dataset: Aflatoxin Paper JPAM
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ABSTRACT: During 2006-2011, 331 red chilli samples (226 whole, 69 powdered and 36 crushed) were collected from all over Pakistan for the estimation of total aflatoxins (AFs = AFB1 + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) contamination by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Mean AFs levels in whole, powdered and crushed chillies were 11.7, 27.8 and 31.2 µg kg(-1), respectively. AFs levels in 62.4% of whole, 26.1% of powdered and 19.4% of crushed chillies were found lower than the maximum limit (ML = 10 µg kg(-1)) as assigned by the European Union. Furthermore, whole (27.9%), powdered (28%) and crushed (27.8%) chillies showed AFs contamination which ranged between 10 and 20 µg kg(-1). However, 9.7% of whole, 46% of powdered and 52.8% of crushed chillies showed AFs levels beyond the ML of 20 µg kg(-1) as assigned by the USDA. It was concluded that AFs contamination in chillies requires further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis. Furthermore, proper harvesting, drying, handling, storage and transport conditions need to be employed.Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance 03/2014; 7(1):1-6.