Electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of in vivo free radical formation and oxidative stress induced by 2,4-dichlorophenol in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus
ABSTRACT In the present study, electron paramagnetic resonance coupled with spin-trapping technique was used, with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) as a spin-trapping agent, to investigate free radical generation in freshwater fish with acute 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) poisoning. The PBN-radical adducts were detected in fish liver samples following treatments of 2,4-DCP (0.025, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 25 mg/kg) 24 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and 2,4-DCP (0.5 mg/kg) at 2, 4, 8, 24, or 72 h after i.p. injection in Carassius auratus. The hyperfine splitting constants for the PBN-radical adducts are aN = 13.7 G, aH = 1.8 G, and g = 2.0058, which is consistent with those of PBN/hydroxyl radical (*OH). The results indicate that the hydroxyl radical is probably produced during acute intoxication of 2,4-DCP. The relative similarity in the kinetics (from 2 to 72 h) of superoxide dismutase activity induction and *OH generation implies that the generation of *OH possibly depends on the superoxide anion (O2*-). Superoxide anion (O2*-) might be the precursor radical undergoing the Haber-Weiss reaction to form *OH. Possible pathways for radical chain reactions in the formation of the hydroxyl radical in vivo after 2,4-DCP administration are proposed. Other parameters with respect to antioxidant defense (e.g., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation level) indicate that the fish were subjected to oxidative stress induced by 2,4-DCP and that the mechanisms of oxidative stress possibly involve the in vivo stimulation of hydroxyl radical formation.
SourceAvailable from: Jinju Geng[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress parameters and some antioxidant defense systems in the liver of Carassius auratus exposed to glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup®) have been studied. Fish were exposed to glyphosate and its formulation at concentrations of 0.032, 0.16, 0.8, and 4.0 mg L−1, all calculated on glyphosate basis, for 11 days. Hydroxyl radical generation as determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of its spin-adduct with α-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone increased with the concentration of Roundup®. Superoxide dismutase activities were decreased relative to control by 21%–46% when exposed to glyphosate and 45%–52% when exposed to Roundup®, suggesting that the formulation is more toxic than glyphosate alone. Catalase showed no difference between both groups.Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 08/2013; 95(7). DOI:10.1080/02772248.2013.863889 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Roundup® is a glyphosate-based herbicide containing a mixture of surfactants. This paper evaluates the toxic effects of Roundup® and its main constituents on the goldfish, Carassius auratus, after 7 days exposure. Fish were exposed to 0.16, 0.032 and 0.0064 mg/L of Roundup® [containing 41% isopropylamine salt of glyphosate (G.I.S) and 18% polyoxyethylene amine (POEA)], G.I.S, and POEA. Their livers were taken for determining reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehye (MDA) content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) could be induced by exposing Roundup® at a rate of 43%–111%, G.I.S at 90%–124% and POEA at142%–157%. A decreased SOD activity was observed in fish exposed to G.I.S and POEA. The contents of MDA significantly increased when exposed to Roundup® at all concentrations, 0.16 mg/L G.I.S and 0.032 mg/L POEA. The exposure led to an inhibition of AChE in livers overall during the experimental periods. POEA was more toxic than Roundup® or G.I.S during this experiment. AChE and ·OH are supposed to be sensitive biomarkers of the exposure of Roundup® and its main constituents to C. auratus.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B 10/2013; 48(10). DOI:10.1080/03601234.2013.795841 · 1.23 Impact Factor
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering 01/2013; 02(02):20-25. DOI:10.4236/cweee.2013.22B004