Electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of in vivo free radical formation and oxidative stress induced by 2,4-dichlorophenol in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus.
ABSTRACT In the present study, electron paramagnetic resonance coupled with spin-trapping technique was used, with alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) as a spin-trapping agent, to investigate free radical generation in freshwater fish with acute 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) poisoning. The PBN-radical adducts were detected in fish liver samples following treatments of 2,4-DCP (0.025, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 25 mg/kg) 24 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and 2,4-DCP (0.5 mg/kg) at 2, 4, 8, 24, or 72 h after i.p. injection in Carassius auratus. The hyperfine splitting constants for the PBN-radical adducts are aN = 13.7 G, aH = 1.8 G, and g = 2.0058, which is consistent with those of PBN/hydroxyl radical (*OH). The results indicate that the hydroxyl radical is probably produced during acute intoxication of 2,4-DCP. The relative similarity in the kinetics (from 2 to 72 h) of superoxide dismutase activity induction and *OH generation implies that the generation of *OH possibly depends on the superoxide anion (O2*-). Superoxide anion (O2*-) might be the precursor radical undergoing the Haber-Weiss reaction to form *OH. Possible pathways for radical chain reactions in the formation of the hydroxyl radical in vivo after 2,4-DCP administration are proposed. Other parameters with respect to antioxidant defense (e.g., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation level) indicate that the fish were subjected to oxidative stress induced by 2,4-DCP and that the mechanisms of oxidative stress possibly involve the in vivo stimulation of hydroxyl radical formation.
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ABSTRACT: Fish are relatively sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment, including increasing pollution. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of contamination with the pendimethalin-based herbicide; Stomp(®) 50% EC (50% pendimethalin as emulsive concentrate) on adults of the monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. A total of 260 fish with body weights of 90 ± 5.0 g were used in the determination of the 96-h LC50 value and of the impacts of acute exposure to pendimethalin on physiological parameters, and oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers. The 96-h median lethal concentration (96-h LC50 ) value of pendimethalin for monosex Nile tilapia was determined as 4.92 mg/L. Abnormal behavioral responses of the fish and the toxic symptoms of pendimethalin exposure are described. Acute exposure to pendimethalin induced leukocytosis, hyperglobulinemia, and hyperglycemia, but resulted in nonsignificant changes in other hemato-biochemical parameters. Moreover, pendimethalin increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased levels of reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase in both liver and gill tissues, in a time-dependent manner, with maximum alterations observed in the gills rather than the liver. We conclude that although pendimethalin is moderately toxic, it does not cause hepatorenal toxicity. However, this herbicide pollutant induces major disturbances to the antioxidant system; induction of oxidative stress and LPO is the proposed toxicodynamic pathway for such stress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.Environmental Toxicology 12/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88211. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) contains Leucine (L) and Arginine (R) in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH) was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12 - 48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84768. · 3.53 Impact Factor