Recurrent brief depression revisited.

Department of General Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
International Review of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 1.8). 03/2005; 17(1):63-70. DOI: 10.1080/00207390500064650
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recurrent Brief Depressive Disorder (RBD) is a well-defined and prevalent mood disorder with an increased risk of suicidal behavior and significant clinical impairment in the community and general practice. Occurring at least monthly with depressive episodes lasting only a few days defines recurrent Brief Depressive Disorder. The lifetime co-occurrence of both RBD and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), called Combined Depression (CD), substantially increases the risk for attempted suicide, even more than that known for 'pure' MDD. The diagnostic criteria for RBD found in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV are helpful in research and clinical routine as well as several methodological issues, which make clinical diagnostic and drug response evaluation of RBD very different from MDD. Formal differences in the course of RBD and MDD require different designs for drug treatment studies. Denials of disorder, specific methodological requirements, and highly selected patient samples have probably been responsible for false negative results in double blind, placebo-controlled treatment studies. Although several authors reported successful treatment of RBD with different compounds in about 60 patients, it is still not possible to deduce a treatment algorithm for RBD to date. Obviously future treatment studies without the limitations of previous studies are clearly required for RBD. Results of ongoing studies will soon provide the first data on the biological underpinnings of RBD.

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    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 06/2012; · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: 1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; 2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g. ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; 3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; 4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; 5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems.
    Medical Hypotheses 01/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive syndromes, including recurrent brief depression (RBD), have frequently been observed in association with chronic diseases characterized by immune activation, such as autoimmune thyroiditis or celiac disease. However, the association of RBD with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), a disease with an increased incidence of major depressive disorders, is unknown. Cases: 135 (83 males, 52 females) consecutive treatment-naïve patients with CHC. Exclusion criteria: previous treatment with IFN-alpha, co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drug or alcohol abuse, or malignancy. Controls: 540 (332 males, 208 females) subjects without evidence of hepatitis, randomly extracted from the database of a previous epidemiological study. The psychiatric diagnosis was based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Simplified (CIDI-S), containing a specific section on RBD. A significantly higher rate of RBD was observed among both male and female patients with CHC (n=21, 15.5%) as compared to controls (n=34, 6.3%) (OR=2.6, CI 95% from 1.37 to 4.93). The present study provides the first evidence of an association between CHC and RBD, independent of treatment with IFN-alpha and not influenced by substance or alcohol abuse. The results are similar to those found in other conditions with immune activation. RBD may be another expression of mood disorders in such conditions.
    Journal of affective disorders 05/2012; 141(2-3):361-6. · 3.76 Impact Factor

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