Atypical American visceral leishmaniasis caused by disseminated Leishmania amazonensis infection presenting with hepatitis and adenopathy.
ABSTRACT Leishmania amazonensis is widely recognised as a cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Latin America, but it can also disseminate to produce atypical visceral leishmaniasis with hepatitis and lymphadenopathy. The patient, an 8-year-old Brazilian boy, presented with a febrile illness and hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes and generalised adenopathy. Serological tests using antigens of L. chagasi, the typical cause of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, were inconclusive. Leishmania amazonensis was eventually isolated in a culture of a lymph node. The patient recovered fully after treatment with meglumine antimoniate. As this case illustrates, L. amazonensis produces a spectrum of disease that includes atypical American visceral leishmaniasis with evidence of hepatocellular injury and generalised lymphadenopathy.
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ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania species. Leishmania amazonensis is a New World Leishmania species belonging to the Mexicana complex, which is able to cause all types of leishmaniasis infections. The L. amazonensis reference strain MHOM/BR/1973/M2269 was sequenced identifying 8,802 codifying sequences (CDS), most of them of hypothetical function. Comparative analysis using six Leishmania species showed a core set of 7,016 orthologs. L. amazonensis and Leishmania mexicana share the largest number of distinct orthologs, while Leishmania braziliensis presented the largest number of inparalogs. Additionally, phylogenomic analysis confirmed the taxonomic position for L. amazonensis within the “Mexicana com-plex”, reinforcing understanding of the split of New and Old World Leishmania. Potential non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) were identified between L. amazonensis and Homo sapiens that could provide new drug targets for development.Evolutionary bioinformatics online 02/2014; 8:131. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trypanosomatid parasites infect over 21 million people worldwide, with a range of disease phenotypes. Trypanosoma cruzi causes American trypanosomiasis, wherein 30-40% of infected individuals develop disease manifestations, most commonly cardiomyopathy but also digestive megasyndromes. In the case of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of African trypanosomiasis, disease progression can be rapid or slow, with early or late central nervous system involvement. Finally, Leishmania species cause leishmaniasis, a disease that ranges from self-healing but scarring cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis in which parasites disseminate to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. This review highlights parasite factors involved in disease phenotype in all three trypanosomatid diseases, with a particular focus on recent advances using large-scale 'omics' techniques.Trends in Parasitology 06/2014; · 6.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resveratrol is a polyphenol that is found in black grapes and red wine that has many biological activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol alone and in association with amphotericin B (AMB) against Leishmania amazonensis. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol possesses both antipromastigote and antiamastigote effects, with IC50 values of 27 and 42 μM, respectively. The association of resveratrol with AMB showed synergy for L. amazonensis amastigotes as demonstrated by the mean sums of fractional inhibitory index concentration (mean ΣFIC) of 0.483, although for promastigotes, this association was indifferent. Treatment with resveratrol increased the percentage of promastigotes in the sub G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, reduced the mitochondrial potential and showed elevated choline peak and an CH2/CH3 ratio in the NMR spectroscopy analysis; all these features indicating parasite death. Resveratrol also decreased the activity of the enzyme arginase in uninfected and infected macrophages with and without stimulation with IL-4, also implicating arginase inhibition on the parasite death. The anti-Leishmania effect of resveratrol and its potential synergistic association with AMB indicate that these compounds should be subjected to further studies of drug association therapy in vivo.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2014; · 4.45 Impact Factor