The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC50 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l(-1), LC50) and lead (0.12 mg l(-1), LC50), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l(-1), LC50). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies.
"The species composition and the abundance of ciliates were determined  . It is known that the protozoa communities in activated sludge can be treated as bioindicators of wastewater purification process and their community composition varies depending on many environmental factors            . Oxygen is one of the most important factors for activated sludge organisms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several experiments were performed in the laboratory condition using an SBR bioreactor modelling the expected conditions, created by malfunction of certain bioreactor elements, thus the different oxygen condition. In the course of the experiments, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, nitrates(III), nitrates(V), TOC, and TC were systematically measured. Besides physico-chemical parameters, the structure of activated sludge community was analyzed. In the samples, the number and species composition of protozoa (ciliates) were determined. Each of the three measuring series conducted for various types of process conditions was repeated three times. The activated sludge used for inoculation of the bioreactor was sampled at Hajdow WWTP in Lublin. The results obtained are the average of three repetitions of every experimental series. On this ground, we may conclude that the number of ciliates shows a high correlation with the O2 concentration, pH and TOC.
Zmiany w Strukturze Zbiorowiska Pierwotniaków Osadu Czynnego w Zróżnicowanych Warunkach Tlenowych
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań prowadzonych w laboratoryjnym bioreaktorze SBR, symulującym warunki występujące w przypadku awarii urządzeń stanowiących wyposażenie bioreaktora (systemu mieszania i systemu napowietrzania). Analizowano skład chemiczny ścieków, w tym stężenia związków azotu (azot amonowy, azotany(III) i azotany(V)), a także stężenia związków organicznych wyrażanych jako ogólny węgiel organiczny (OWO) i węgiel całkowity. Oprócz wskaźników chemicznych analizowany był również zespół organizmów osadu czynnego. W pobieranych próbkach określano ilość pierwotniaków (orzęski) w wymienionej grupie. Każdą z trzech serii pomiarowych prowadzonych dla różnych warunków procesowych powtarzano trzykrotnie. W eksperymencie wykorzystano osad czynny pobierany z oczyszczalni ścieków Hajdów w Lublinie. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników badań można stwierdzić, że liczebności analizowanych zbiorowisk orzęsków wykazują związek ze stężeniem tlenu, pH oraz wartością OWO.
"Heavy metals toxicity in activated sludge processes primarily depends on the nature and concentration of the heavy metal (Ong et al. 2005; El Bestawy et al. 2013; Malamis et al. 2012), type of microorganisms (Gikas and Romanos 2006; Ochoa-Herrera et al. 2011; Madoni and Romeo 2006), biomass concentration (Cokgor et al. 2007; Vankova et al. 1999), exposition time (Zhou et al. 2011), and pH (Van Nostrand et al. 2005; Smolyakov et al. 2010). Complex interactions with other metallic (Gikas 2007) and nonmetallic ions (Pai et al. 2009) that affect heavy metals speciation (Smolyakov et al. 2010; Stasinakis et al. 2003), also in turn affect heavy metal toxicity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel microrespirometric method to characterize the inhibitory effects due to heavy metals on activated sludge treatment. This method was based on pulse dynamic respirometry and involved the injection of several pulses of substrate and inhibitors, of increasing concentration. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of heavy metals (copper and zinc), substrate and biomass concentrations, and pH on activated sludge activity. While higher biomass concentrations counteracted the inhibitory effects of both copper and zinc, higher substrate concentrations predominantly augmented the inhibitory effect of copper but no significant change in inhibition by zinc was observed. pH had a clear but relatively small effect on inhibition, partially explained by thermodynamic speciation. We determined the key kinetic parameters; namely, the half saturation constant (K
) and the maximum oxygen uptake rate (OUR
). The results showed that higher heavy metal concentrations substantially decreased K
suggesting that the inhibition was uncompetitive.
"In the brackets next to the median value, the number of data used to derive the median value is presented Data are summarized from Supplementary Tables S3–S8 and are arranged throughout according to the decreasing sensitivity (increasing median L(E)C50 values) of test organisms to silver nanoparticles. The L(E)C50 and MIC numbers are from the following articles: Borovanskyánd Riley (1989), Ershov et al. (1997), McCloskey et al. (1996), Lin et al. (1996), Zhao et al. (1998), Mobley et al. (1999), Mastin and Rodgers (2000), Grass and Rensing (2001), Franklin et al. (2002), Graff et al. (2003), Harmon et al. (2003), Teitzel and Parsek (2003), Yilmaz (2003), De Boeck et al. (2004), Hsieh et al. (2004), Jonker et al. (2004), de Oliveira-Filho et al. (2004), Shakibaie and Harati (2004), Apte et al. (2005), Cho et al. (2005), Heijerick et al. (2005), Lee et al. (2005)¸ Chen et al. (2006), Hiriart-Baer et al. (2006), Jeng and Swanson (2006), Kungolos et al. (2006), Madoni and Romeo (2006), Panáček et al. (2006), Dechsakulthorn et al. (2007), Franklin et al. (2007), Gallego et al. (2007), Zhang et al. (2007), Calafato et al. (2008), Griffitt et al. (2008), Heinlaan et al. (2008), Hernández-Sierra et al. (2008), Jin et al. (2008), Karlsson et al. (2008), Kim et al. (2008), Martínez-Castanón et al. (2008), Mortimer et al. (2008), Navarro et al. (2008), Padmavathy and Vijayaraghavan (2008), Ruparelia et al. (2008), Zhu et al. (2008), Aruoja et al. (2009), Chae et al. (2009), Foldbjerg et al. (2009), Jain et al. (2009), Kasemets et al. (2009), Kim et al. 2009a, b, Kvitek et al. (2009), Lewis and Keller (2009), Lin et al. (2009), Liu et al. (2009), Ma et al. (2009), Oliva et al. (2009), Park and Heo (2009), Pavlica et al. (2009), Sovova et al. (2009), Teodorovic et al. (2009), Wang et al. (2009), Zhu et al. (2009), Ahamed et al. (2010), Baker et al. (2010), Blinova et al. (2010), Chen et al. (2010), Contreras et al. (2010), Ebrahimpour et al. (2010), Kennedy et al. (2010), Kim et al. (2010), Laban et al. (2010), Liu et al. (2010), Meyer et al. (2010), Miao et al. (2010), Mortimer et al. (2010), Nowrouzi et al. (2010), Panjehpour et al. (2010), Song et al. (2010), Suresh et al. (2010), Wang and Guan (2010), Wong et al. (2010), Alsop and Wood (2011), Bao et al. (2011), Dua et al. (2011), Emami-Karvani and Chehrazi (2011), Foldbjerg et al. (2011), He et al. (2011), Kim et al. (2011), Kurvet et al. (2011), Lipovsky et al. (2011), Ma et al. (2011), Majzlik et al. (2011), McLaughlin and Bonzongo (2011), Mortimer et al. (2011), Murphy et al. (2011), Naddafi et al. (2011), Niazi et al. (2011), Poynton et al. (2011), Xie et al. (2011), Xiong et al. (2011), Yu et al. (2011), Zhao et al. (2011), Albers et al. (2012), Ansari et al. (2012), Binaeian et al. (2012), Blinova et al. (2012), Brandt et al. (2012), Böhmert et al. (2012), Cao et al. (2012), Ellegaard- Jensen et al. (2012), Govindasamy and Rahuman (2012), Greulich et al. (2012), Haase et al. (2012), Harrington et al. (2012), Hassan et al. (2012), He et al. (2012), Hoheisel et al. (2012), Jo et al. (2012), Kashiwada et al. (2012), Kennedy et al. (2012), Kim et al. (2012), Kwok et al. (2012), Li et al. (2012a, b) Lim et al. (2012), Little et al. (2012), Manusadžianas et al. (2012), Monteiro et al. (2012), Oukarroum et al. (2012), Patra et al. (2012), Perreault et al. (2012), Piret et al. 2012a, b, Poynton et al. (2012), Rallo et al. (2012), Seiffert et al. (2012), Shaw et al. (2012), Shi et al. (2012), Unger and Lück (2012), Vargas-Reus et al. (2012), Wang et al. (2012a,b), Wu et al. (2012), Yang et al. (2012), Zhang et al. (2012a, b), Zhao et al. (2012), Zhao and Wang (2012), Debabrata and Giasuddin (2013), Juganson et al. (2013), Kasemets et al. (2013), Wu and Zhou (2013) a V. fischeri data were retrieved separately from other bacteria, because V. fischeri (also an ISO (2010) test organism) was considered as nontarget aquatic species b Classification of NPs and their soluble salts to hazard categories adheres to EU-Directive 93/67/EEC (CEC 1996) and is based on the lowest median L(E)C50 value of the three key environmental organisms: algae, crustaceans and fish. \1 mg/L = very toxic to aquatic organisms; 1–10 mg/L = toxic to aquatic organisms; 10–100 mg/L = harmful to aquatic organisms; [100 mg/L = not classified c Analogous to classification of CEC (1996) except that one category is added: \0.1 mg/L = extremely toxic to aquatic organisms Arch Toxicol (2013) 87:1181–1200 1189 Altogether 317 L(E)C50 or minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values for studied NPs were retrieved. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) of copper oxide (CuO), zinc oxide (ZnO) and especially nanosilver are intentionally used to fight the undesirable growth of bacteria, fungi and algae. Release of these NPs from consumer and household products into waste streams and further into the environment may, however, pose threat to the ‘non-target’ organisms, such as natural microbes and aquatic organisms. This review summarizes the recent research on (eco)toxicity of silver (Ag), CuO and ZnO NPs. Organism-wise it focuses on key test species used for the analysis of ecotoxicological hazard. For comparison, the toxic effects of studied NPs toward mammalian cells in vitro were addressed. Altogether 317 L(E)C50 or minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were obtained for algae, crustaceans, fish, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, protozoa and mammalian cell lines. As a rule, crustaceans, algae and fish proved most sensitive to the studied NPs. The median L(E)C50 values of Ag NPs, CuO NPs and ZnO NPs (mg/L) were 0.01, 2.1 and 2.3 for crustaceans; 0.36, 2.8 and 0.08 for algae; and 1.36, 100 and 3.0 for fish, respectively. Surprisingly, the NPs were less toxic to bacteria than to aquatic organisms: the median MIC values for bacteria were 7.1, 200 and 500 mg/L for Ag, CuO and ZnO NPs, respectively. In comparison, the respective median L(E)C50 values for mammalian cells were 11.3, 25 and 43 mg/L. Thus, the toxic range of all the three metal-containing NPs to target- and non-target organisms overlaps, indicating that the leaching of biocidal NPs from consumer products should be addressed.
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Archives of Toxicology 06/2013; 87(7). DOI:10.1007/s00204-013-1079-4 · 5.98 Impact Factor
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