A similar impairment in CA3 mossy fibre LTP in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease and in the complexin II knockout mouse.
ABSTRACT Complexin II is reduced in Huntington's disease (HD) patients and in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Mice lacking complexin II (Cplx2-/- mice) show selective cognitive deficits that reflect those seen in R6/2 mice. To determine whether or not there is a common mechanism that might underlie the cognitive deficits, long-term potentiation (LTP) was examined in the CA3 region of hippocampal slices from R6/2 mice and Cplx2-/- mice. While associational/commissural (A/C) LTP was not significantly different, mossy fibre (MF) LTP was significantly reduced in slices from R6/2 mice and Cplx2-/- mice compared with wild-type (WT) and Cplx2+/+ control mice. MF field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in response to paired stimuli were not significantly different between control mice and R6/2 or Cplx2-/- mice, suggesting that MF basal glutamate release is unaffected. Forskolin (30 microm) caused an increase in glutamate release at MF synapses in slices from R6/2 mice and from Cplx2-/- mice that was not significantly different from that seen in control mice, indicating that the capacity for increased glutamate release is not diminished. Thus, R6/2 mice and Cplx2-/- mice have a common selective impairment of MF LTP in the CA3 region. Together, these data suggest that complexin II is required for MF LTP, and that depletion of complexin II causes a selective impairment in MF LTP in the CA3 region. This impairment in MF LTP could contribute to spatial learning deficits observed in R6/2 and Cplx2-/- mice.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: A. Jennifer Morton, Jul 28, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Alterations in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in Parkinson's disease are well known and widely studied. Much less is known about DA changes that accompany and underlie some of the symptoms of Huntington's disease (HD), a dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by chorea, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disturbances. The cause is an expansion in CAG (glutamine) repeats in the HTT gene. The principal histopathology of HD is the loss of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and, to a lesser degree, neuronal loss in cerebral cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Neurochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies in HD patients and genetic mouse models suggest biphasic changes in DA neurotransmission. In the early stages, DA neurotransmission is increased leading to hyperkinetic movements that can be alleviated by depleting DA stores. In contrast, in the late stages, DA deficits produce hypokinesia that can be treated by increasing DA function. Alterations in DA neurotransmission affect glutamate receptor modulation and could contribute to excitotoxicity. The mechanisms of DA dysfunction, in particular the increased DA tone in the early stages of the disease, are presently unknown but may include initial upregulation of DA neuron activity caused by the genetic mutation, reduced inhibition resulting from striatal MSN loss, increased excitation from cortical inputs, and DA autoreceptor dysfunction. Targeting both DA and glutamate receptor dysfunction could be the best strategy to treat HD symptoms.Progress in brain research 01/2014; 211:235-54. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-63425-2.00010-6 · 5.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. The disease progresses over decades, but often patients develop cognitive impairments that precede the onset of the classical motor symptoms. Similar to the disease progression in humans, the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) 128 HD mouse model also exhibits cognitive dysfunction that precedes the onset of the neuropathological and motor impairments characteristic of HD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, two related biological models of learning and memory processes, were altered in YAC128 mice in early stages of disease progression. We show that the YAC128 hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) displays marked reductions in paired-pulse depression both at 3 and 6 months of age. In addition, significantly enhanced post-tetanic and short-term potentiation is apparent in YAC128 mice after high-frequency stimulation at this time. Early and late forms of long-term plasticity were not altered at this stage. Together these findings indicate that there may be elevated neurotransmitter release in response to synaptic stimulation in YAC128 mice during the initial phase of disease progression. These abnormalities in short-term plasticity detected at this stage in YAC128 HD transgenic mice indicate that aberrant information processing at the level of the synapses may contribute, at least in part, to the early onset of cognitive deficits that are characteristic of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder.Brain Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.06.011 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A long-term goal of modeling Huntington's disease (HD) is to recapitulate the cardinal features of the disease in mice that express both mutant and wild-type (WT) huntingtin (Htt), as HD commonly manifests as a heterozygous condition in humans, and loss of WT Htt is associated with loss-of-function. In a new heterozygous Q175 knock in (KI) mouse model, we performed an extensive evaluation of motor and cognitive functional deficits, neuropathological and biochemical changes, and levels of proteins involved in synaptic function, the cytoskeleton, and axonal transport, at 1-16 months of age. Motor deficits were apparent at 6-months of age in Q175 KI mice and at that time, post-mortem striatal GABA levels were elevated and mutant Htt inclusions were present throughout the brain. From 6 months of age, levels of proteins associated with synaptic function, including SNAP-25, Rab3A and PSD-95, and with axonal transport and microtubules, including KIF3A, dynein and dynactin, were altered in the striatum, motor cortex, pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of Q175 KI mice, compared to wild-type levels. At 12-16 months of age, Q175 KI mice displayed motor and cognitive deficits, which were paralleled at post-mortem by striatal atrophy, cortical thinning, degeneration of medium spiny neurons, dense mutant Htt inclusion formation, decreased striatal dopamine levels and loss of striatal BDNF. Data from this study indicate that the heterozygous Q175 KI mouse represents a realistic model for HD and also provides new insights into the specific and progressive synaptic, cytoskeletal and axonal transport protein abnormalities that may accompany the disease.Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu166 · 6.68 Impact Factor