Characterization of a Novel Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Deaminase from a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon

Department of Synthetic and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto, Japan.
Journal of Bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 11/2005; 187(20):7038-44. DOI: 10.1128/JB.187.20.7038-7044.2005
Source: PubMed


A key step in amino sugar metabolism is the interconversion between fructose-6-phosphate (Fru6P) and glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P). This conversion is catalyzed in the catabolic and anabolic directions by GlcN6P deaminase and GlcN6P synthase, respectively, two enzymes that show no relationship with one another in terms of primary structure. In this study, we examined the catalytic properties and regulatory features of the glmD gene product (GlmD(Tk)) present within a chitin degradation gene cluster in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1. Although the protein GlmD(Tk) was predicted as a probable sugar isomerase related to the C-terminal sugar isomerase domain of GlcN6P synthase, the recombinant GlmD(Tk) clearly exhibited GlcN6P deaminase activity, generating Fru6P and ammonia from GlcN6P. This enzyme also catalyzed the reverse reaction, the ammonia-dependent amination/isomerization of Fru6P to GlcN6P, whereas no GlcN6P synthase activity dependent on glutamine was observed. Kinetic analyses clarified the preference of this enzyme for the deaminase reaction rather than the reverse one, consistent with the catabolic function of GlmD(Tk). In T. kodakaraensis cells, glmD(Tk) was polycistronically transcribed together with upstream genes encoding an ABC transporter and a downstream exo-beta-glucosaminidase gene (glmA(Tk)) within the gene cluster, and their expression was induced by the chitin degradation intermediate, diacetylchitobiose. The results presented here indicate that GlmD(Tk) is actually a GlcN6P deaminase functioning in the entry of chitin-derived monosaccharides to glycolysis in this hyperthermophile. This enzyme is the first example of an archaeal GlcN6P deaminase and is a structurally novel type distinct from any previously known GlcN6P deaminase.

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    • "Proteins with SIS domains have been classified in the Cluster of Orthologous Group of proteins as COG222. It was proposed by Tanaka and co-workers that although AgaI has sequence homology to nagB encoded GlcNAc-6-P deaminase/isomerase and has been predicted to be the Gam-6-P deaminase/isomerase, AgaS which belongs to COG222 could be an additional Gam-6-P deaminase [23]. Based on these reports and our findings that neither agaI nor nagB has a role in Aga and Gam utilization, we propose that agaS codes for Gam-6-P deaminase/isomerase. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The catabolic pathways of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (Aga) and D-galactosamine (Gam) in E. coli were proposed from bioinformatic analysis of the aga/gam regulon in E. coli K-12 and later from studies using E. coli C. Of the thirteen genes in this cluster, the roles of agaA, agaI, and agaS predicted to code for Aga-6-P-deacetylase, Gam-6-P deaminase/isomerase, and ketose-aldolase isomerase, respectively, have not been experimentally tested. Here we study their roles in Aga and Gam utilization in E. coli O157:H7 and in E. coli C. Results Knockout mutants in agaA, agaI, and agaS were constructed to test their roles in Aga and Gam utilization. Knockout mutants in the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) pathway genes nagA and nagB coding for GlcNAc-6-P deacetylase and glucosamine-6-P deaminase/isomerase, respectively, and double knockout mutants ΔagaA ΔnagA and ∆agaI ∆nagB were also constructed to investigate if there is any interplay of these enzymes between the Aga/Gam and the GlcNAc pathways. It is shown that Aga utilization was unaffected in ΔagaA mutants but ΔagaA ΔnagA mutants were blocked in Aga and GlcNAc utilization. E. coli C ΔnagA could not grow on GlcNAc but could grow when the aga/gam regulon was constitutively expressed. Complementation of ΔagaA ΔnagA mutants with either agaA or nagA resulted in growth on both Aga and GlcNAc. It was also found that ΔagaI, ΔnagB, and ∆agaI ΔnagB mutants were unaffected in utilization of Aga and Gam. Importantly, ΔagaS mutants were blocked in Aga and Gam utilization. Expression analysis of relevant genes in these strains with different genetic backgrounds by real time RT-PCR supported these observations. Conclusions Aga utilization was not affected in ΔagaA mutants because nagA was expressed and substituted for agaA. Complementation of ΔagaA ΔnagA mutants with either agaA or nagA also showed that both agaA and nagA can substitute for each other. The ∆agaI, ∆nagB, and ∆agaI ∆nagB mutants were not affected in Aga and Gam utilization indicating that neither agaI nor nagB is involved in the deamination and isomerization of Gam-6-P. We propose that agaS codes for Gam-6-P deaminase/isomerase in the Aga/Gam pathway.
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