Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbabwe: A 48-nation study of sex, culture, and strategies of human mating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 247-275

Department of Psychology, Bradley University, Peona, IL 62625, USA.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences (Impact Factor: 20.77). 04/2005; 28(2):247-75; discussion 275-311. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X05000051
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad 1991) is a self-report measure of individual differences in human mating strategies. Low SOI scores signify that a person is sociosexually restricted, or follows a more monogamous mating strategy. High SOI scores indicate that an individual is unrestricted, or has a more promiscuous mating strategy. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project (ISDP), the SOI was translated from English into 25 additional languages and administered to a total sample of 14,059 people across 48 nations. Responses to the SOI were used to address four main issues. First, the psychometric properties of the SOI were examined in cross-cultural perspective. The SOI possessed adequate reliability and validity both within and across a diverse range of modem cultures. Second, theories concerning the systematic distribution of sociosexuality across cultures were evaluated. Both operational sex ratios and reproductively demanding environments related in evolutionary-predicted ways to national levels of sociosexuality. Third, sex differences in sociosexuality were generally large and demonstrated cross-cultural universality across the 48 nations of the ISDP, confirming several evolutionary theories of human mating. Fourth, sex differences in sociosexuality were significantly larger when reproductive environments were demanding but were reduced to more moderate levels in cultures with more political and economic gender equality. Implications for evolutionary and social role theories of human sexuality are discussed.

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Available from: David Schmitt, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "However, questions have been recently raised about the dimensionality of the questionnaire as well as about the dimensionality of the construct itself. For example, Asendorpf and Penke (2005) made a comment on Schmitt et al.'s (2003, 2005b) International Sexuality Description Project, in which the SOI was used to investigate sexuality in different cultures. They pointed out an issue of heterogeneity of items used to assess sociosexuality. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sociosexuality refers to individual differences in willingness to engage in casual sex without emotional involvement with the partner. One of the most popular measures of sociosexuality is the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI) that was initially constructed as a one-dimensional measure. Although a multidimensional approach has been shown to be more informative, one-dimensional SOI scoring is still used. In this article, we replicate previous findings, using confirmatory procedures, that two-dimensional SOI scoring could be more adequate. Further, we demonstrate the advantages of a two-dimensional SOI structure in investigating relationships between sociosexuality and its personality correlates. These results could provide an incentive for a consensus of using multidimensional measures of sociosexuality.
    Evolutionary Psychology 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1474704915604541 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    • "After completing the forced-choice tests, participants completed the revised sociosexuality inventory (SOI-R; Penke & Asendorpf, 2008). Sociosexuality is defined as one's overall orientation toward uncommitted sex and willingness to enter casual sexual relations (Schmitt, 2005). The SOI-R is a 9-item scale that quantifies an individual's sexual openness across past behavioral experiences, attitudes toward uncommitted sex, and sexual desire (Penke & Asendorpf, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Women tend to have a smaller chin, fuller lips, and rounder eyes than men, due in part to the effects of estrogen. These features associated with facial femininity have been found to be positively associated with fertility. Although young men in their 20s typically judge facial femininity as more attractive than facial masculinity, at all ages, men with higher sexual desire and testosterone levels tend to show a marked preference for feminine faces. In the current study, we extend this research using a large cross-national sample to test the hypothesis that facial femininity preferences will be stronger among younger men than among older men. We also tested whether these preferences are influenced by self-reported sexual openness, national health indices, and gross national income. Method. We quantified attractiveness judgments (i.e., preferences) among 2,125 heterosexual men (aged 17–73 years) for female faces that were manipulated to appear more or less feminine using a computer graphics program. Results. Facial femininity preferences decreased with age, being highest among men in their 30s and lowest among men in their 70s. This pattern was independent of men’s sexual openness and cross-national variation in health and socioeconomic development. Discussion. Our study shows that men’s preferences for facial femininity are age dependent. At the proximate level, differences in preferences could reflect age-related declines in testosterone levels. These age-related declines in preferences could benefit older men, who are less able to invest in mating effort, and thus may opt out of competition with younger men for mates with potentially higher fertility.
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    • "Sex differences in some preferences and motivations are well established. Notably, compared to women, men generally show greater desire for sex in short-term or uncommitted contexts (Baumeister, Catanese & Vohs, 2001; Schmitt, 2005), greater preference for occupations that involve working with things rather than with people (Lippa, 1998; Konrad et al., 2000; Su, Rounds & Armstrong, 2009), greater motivation to prioritize the professional sphere over the domestic one (Browne, 2002; Hakim, 2006), and, in several domains, greater willingness to take risks (Wilson & Daly, 1985; Byrnes, Miller & Schafer, 1999; Croson & Gneezy, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sex differences in some preferences and motivations are well established, but it is unclear whether they persist in selective sub-populations, such as expert financial decision makers, top scientists, or elite athletes. We addressed this issue by studying competitiveness in 1,147 varsity intercollegiate distance runners. As expected, across all runners, men reported greater competitiveness with two previously validated instruments , greater competitiveness on a new elite competitiveness scale, and greater training volume, a known correlate of competitiveness. Among faster runners, the sex difference decreased for one measure of competitiveness but did not decrease for the two other competitiveness measures or either measure of training volume. Across NCAA athletic divisions (DI, DII, DIII), the sex difference did not decrease for any competitiveness or training measure. Further analyses showed that these sex differences could not be attributed to women suffering more injuries or facing greater childcare responsibilities. However, women did report greater commitment than men to their academic studies, suggesting a sex difference in priorities. Therefore, policies aiming to provide men and women with equal opportunities to flourish should acknowledge that sex differences in some kinds of preferences and motivation may persist even in selective sub-populations.
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