Detection of a novel aph(2") allele (aph[2"]-Ie) conferring high-level gentamicin resistance and a spectinomycin resistance gene ant(9)-Ia (aad 9) in clinical isolates of enterococci.

Department of Hygiene, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan.
Microbial Drug Resistance (Impact Factor: 2.52). 02/2005; 11(3):239-47. DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2005.11.239
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) are major factors that confer aminoglycoside resistance to enterococci. In an epidemiologic study on distribution of 12 AME genes in 534 recent clinical strains isolated from a Japanese hospital, two uncommon AME genes, ant(9)-Ia and a novel aph(2") allele, aph(2")-Ie, were detected. ant(9)-Ia had been reported only in Staphylococcus aureus and encodes spectinomycin adenylyltransferase ANT(9)-I, which confers resistance to spectinomycin. The ant(9)-Ia gene was detected in three strains, a single strain each of Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and E. avium. Nucleotide sequences of ant(9)-Ia from these three enterococcal species were identical to that reported for S. aureus and considered to be located on Tn 554. The new aph(2") allele, designated aph(2")-Ie, was identified in three E. faecium strains. The aph(2")-Ie allele was genetically close to aph(2")-Id reported in E. casseliflavus (93.7% amino acid sequence identity; 96.3% similarity), while distant from aph(2")-Ia, aph(2")-Ib, or aph(2")-Ic (26.3-29.5% amino acid sequence identity). Sequence divergence between APH(2")-Id and APH(2")-Ie was mostly located in amino-terminal half. In contrast, sequences corresponding to the three motifs required for aminoglycoside phosphotransferase were conserved except for a single amino acid. Three E. faecium strains having aph(2")-Ie showed high-level resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, but not to kanamycin, dibekacin, and tobramycin, unlike enzyme specificity described for aph(2")-Id in E. casseliflavus. Such a difference in resistance phenotype was suggested to be related to amino acid sequence divergence between APH(2")-Id and APH(2")-Ie.

  • Source
    Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - A Continuous Challenge in the New Millennium, 04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0472-8
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase IVa [APH(2'')-IVa] is a member of a family of bacterial enzymes responsible for medically relevant resistance to antibiotics. APH(2'')-IVa confers high-level resistance against several clinically used aminoglycoside antibiotics in various pathogenic Enterococcus species by phosphorylating the drug, thereby preventing it from binding to its ribosomal target and producing a bactericidal effect. We describe here three crystal structures of APH(2'')-IVa, one in its apo form and two in complex with a bound antibiotic, tobramycin and kanamycin A. The apo structure was refined to a resolution of 2.05 Å, and the APH(2'')-IVa structures with tobramycin and kanamycin A bound were refined to resolutions of 1.80 and 2.15 Å, respectively. Comparison among the structures provides insight concerning the substrate selectivity of this enzyme. In particular, conformational changes upon substrate binding, involving rotational shifts of two distinct segments of the enzyme, are observed. These substrate-induced shifts may also rationalize the altered substrate preference of APH(2'')-IVa in comparison to those of other members of the APH(2'') subfamily, which are structurally closely related. Finally, analysis of the interactions between the enzyme and aminoglycoside reveals a distinct binding mode as compared to the intended ribosomal target. The differences in the pattern of interactions can be utilized as a structural basis for the development of improved aminoglycosides that are not susceptible to these resistance factors.
    Biochemistry 06/2011; 50(28):6237-44. DOI:10.1021/bi200747f · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prevalence and molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) were studied in Hokkaido, the main northern island of Japan. Among the 1,015 S. aureus isolates derived from clinical specimens of outpatients collected in 2009, methicillin resistance gene mecA was detected in 189 isolates (18.6%). The most frequent staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type in MRSA was II (83.1%), followed by IV (6.9%) and V (3.2%). MRSA with type II-SCCmec showed multiple drug resistance and harbored various toxin and virulence factor genes except for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. These isolates were mostly classified into sequence type 5 (ST5) (or other STs in CC5) and coagulase genotype II and were thus genetically similar to hospital-acquired MRSA, which have been predominating in Japan (New York/Japan clone). PVL gene was detected in three MRSA strains belonging to ST6 (two strains) and ST59 (one strain), having type IVa- and Vt-SCCmec, respectively, and also in two methicillin-susceptible S. aureus ST121 and ST188. The arcA gene within the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was detected in the two PVL-negative ST5 MRSA strains, which had type IIa- or V-SCCmec. The PVL gene-positive ST6 and ST59 CA-MRSA strains were susceptible to more antimicrobials and had less virulence factor genes than the PVL-negative ST5 MRSA, including the ACME-arcA-positive strains. In the present study, ST6 was identified as a lineage of PVL-positive CA-MRSA, the ACME-arcA was first detected in ST5 MRSA with type V-SCCmec, and ST59 Taiwanese CA-MRSA strain was isolated in Hokkaido for the first time. These findings suggest a potential spread of these emerging CA-MRSA clones in Japan.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 03/2011; 17(2):241-50. DOI:10.1089/mdr.2010.0136 · 2.52 Impact Factor