Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), powerful anti-bone-resorptive drugs, have inflammatory side effects, while histamine is not only an inflammatory mediator, but also an immuno-modifier. In murine models, a single intraperitoneal injection of an N-BP induces various inflammatory reactions, including the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in tissues important in immune responses (such as liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF are also capable of inducing HDC. We reported previously that in mice, (i) the inflammatory actions of N-BPs depend on IL-1, (ii) N-BP pretreatment augments both LPS-stimulated IL-1 production and HDC induction, and (iii) the co-administration of clodronate (a non-N-BP) with an N-BP inhibits the latter's inflammatory actions (including HDC induction). Here, we add the new findings that (a) pretreatment with alendronate (a typical N-BP) augments both IL-1- and TNF-induced HDC elevations, (b) LPS pretreatment augments the alendronate-induced HDC elevation, (c) co-administration of clodronate with alendronate abolishes these augmentations, (d) alendronate does not induce HDC in IL-1-deficient mice even if they are pretreated with LPS, and (e) alendronate increases IL-1beta in all tissues tested, but not in the serum. These results suggest that (1) there are mutual augmentations between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS) in HDC induction, (2) tissue IL-1beta is important in alendronate-stimulated HDC induction, and (3) combination use of clodronate may have the potential to reduce the inflammatory effects of alendronate (we previously found that clodronate, conveniently, does not inhibit the anti-bone-resorptive activity of alendronate).
"In the past, alendronate has been reported to have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Deng and colleagues found that alendronate increases IL-1β in tissues (liver, spleen, and lung), but, strangely, not in the blood . Later, Shikama and colleagues explained this phenomenon when they discovered that alendronate directly stimulates macrophage cells to produce pro-IL-1β, though the release of mature IL-1β was undetectable in consequence of a poor activation of caspase-1, the IL-1 converting enzyme which yields the bioactive IL-1β . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in the MVK gene, encoding the second enzyme of mevalonate pathway, which results in subsequent shortage of downstream compounds, and starts in childhood with febrile attacks, skin, joint, and gastrointestinal symptoms, sometimes induced by vaccinations.
For a history of early-onset corticosteroid-induced reduction of bone mineral density in a 14-year-old boy with MKD, who also had presented three bone fractures, we administered weekly oral alendronate, a drug widely used in the management of osteoporosis and other high bone turnover diseases, which blocks mevalonate and halts the prenylation process.
All of the patient's MKD clinical and laboratory abnormalities were resolved after starting alendronate treatment.
This observation appears enigmatic, since alendronate should reinforce the metabolic block characterizing MKD, but is crucial because of the ultimate improvement shown by this patient. The anti-inflammatory properties of bisphosphonates are a new question for debate among physicians across various specialties, and requires further biochemical and clinical investigation.
"After 2 h of LPS stimulation, blood was collected directly into test tubes. Dose and time of LPS treatment were decided according to the literature and to previous studies conducted in our laboratory [14, 15]. Serum was recovered by centrifugation at 2,000×g at 4 °C and then stored at −80 °C until biochemical analysis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since contradictory findings have been reported on potential effects of statins in modulating the inflammatory response, we have analysed the biological activity of lovastatin both in vitro using the Raw 264.7 murine macrophagic cell line and in vivo using BALB/c mice. When added to Raw 264.7 cells in combination with lipopolysaccharide, lovastatin significantly potentiated the release of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and interleukin-12 with respect to lipopolysaccharide alone and showed an additive effect on the release of nitric oxide. Similarly, when lovastatin was intraperitoneally administrated to BALB/c mice, it did not induce any pro-inflammatory effect when used alone, but it significantly potentiated the pro-inflammatory activity of lipopolysaccharide, in terms of number of intraperitoneal cells and serum levels of serum amyloid A, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and interleukin-12. A potential clinical implication of our study is that lovastatin might exert a pro-inflammatory activity in subjects affected by inflammatory processes, with clinically evident or subclinical infections.
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 08/2013; 6(6). DOI:10.1007/s12265-013-9506-8 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous findings suggest that antigen challenge (AC) may induce histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in cells other than mast cells (MCs) via MC-derived IL-1. We examined this hypothesis.
Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin. After the sensitization, an AC was delivered intravenously.
In control mice, AC markedly induced HDC at a postanaphylactic time in the liver, lung, spleen, and ears. In MC-deficient W/W(v) mice, AC also induced HDC, although the effect was weaker than in control mice. AC increased IL-1 in the tissues, the pattern being similar in W/W(v) and control mice. AC induced HDC similarly in IL-1-deficient and control mice. In control mice, AC decreased histamine in the tissues (except the liver) for several hours.
(1) AC induces HDC in both MC-dependent and MC-independent ways. (2) AC induces IL-1 mostly in non-MCs, but this IL-1 is not a prerequisite for the induction of HDC by AC. (3) HDC induction may contribute to the replenishment of the reduced pool of MC histamine in the anaphylactic period. (4) In the case of MC-dependent HDC induction, AC may stimulate MCs in such a way as to induce HDC within the MCs themselves, and/or AC-stimulated MCs may stimulate HDC induction in other cells, which will need to be directly identified in future studies.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 02/2007; 144(1):69-78. DOI:10.1159/000102617 · 2.67 Impact Factor
B. Granum, B. Hasseltvedt, E.-C. Groeng, E. Namork
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