Mutual augmentation of the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase, between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS), and its prevention by clodronate
ABSTRACT Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), powerful anti-bone-resorptive drugs, have inflammatory side effects, while histamine is not only an inflammatory mediator, but also an immuno-modifier. In murine models, a single intraperitoneal injection of an N-BP induces various inflammatory reactions, including the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in tissues important in immune responses (such as liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF are also capable of inducing HDC. We reported previously that in mice, (i) the inflammatory actions of N-BPs depend on IL-1, (ii) N-BP pretreatment augments both LPS-stimulated IL-1 production and HDC induction, and (iii) the co-administration of clodronate (a non-N-BP) with an N-BP inhibits the latter's inflammatory actions (including HDC induction). Here, we add the new findings that (a) pretreatment with alendronate (a typical N-BP) augments both IL-1- and TNF-induced HDC elevations, (b) LPS pretreatment augments the alendronate-induced HDC elevation, (c) co-administration of clodronate with alendronate abolishes these augmentations, (d) alendronate does not induce HDC in IL-1-deficient mice even if they are pretreated with LPS, and (e) alendronate increases IL-1beta in all tissues tested, but not in the serum. These results suggest that (1) there are mutual augmentations between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS) in HDC induction, (2) tissue IL-1beta is important in alendronate-stimulated HDC induction, and (3) combination use of clodronate may have the potential to reduce the inflammatory effects of alendronate (we previously found that clodronate, conveniently, does not inhibit the anti-bone-resorptive activity of alendronate).
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ABSTRACT: Previous findings suggest that antigen challenge (AC) may induce histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in cells other than mast cells (MCs) via MC-derived IL-1. We examined this hypothesis. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin. After the sensitization, an AC was delivered intravenously. In control mice, AC markedly induced HDC at a postanaphylactic time in the liver, lung, spleen, and ears. In MC-deficient W/W(v) mice, AC also induced HDC, although the effect was weaker than in control mice. AC increased IL-1 in the tissues, the pattern being similar in W/W(v) and control mice. AC induced HDC similarly in IL-1-deficient and control mice. In control mice, AC decreased histamine in the tissues (except the liver) for several hours. (1) AC induces HDC in both MC-dependent and MC-independent ways. (2) AC induces IL-1 mostly in non-MCs, but this IL-1 is not a prerequisite for the induction of HDC by AC. (3) HDC induction may contribute to the replenishment of the reduced pool of MC histamine in the anaphylactic period. (4) In the case of MC-dependent HDC induction, AC may stimulate MCs in such a way as to induce HDC within the MCs themselves, and/or AC-stimulated MCs may stimulate HDC induction in other cells, which will need to be directly identified in future studies.International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 02/2007; 144(1):69-78. DOI:10.1159/000102617 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are powerful anti-bone-resorptive drugs, but they frequently induce various inflammatory side effects. Recent clinical applications have disclosed an unexpected new side effect, jaw-bone necrosis and exposure. In vitro studies suggest that the inflammatory effects of NBPs are due to Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cells, stimulated directly and/or indirectly [the latter via isopentenylpyrophosphate (IPP) in the mevalonate pathway]. Rats and mice, however, lack Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cells, yet NBPs still induce necrotic and inflammatory reactions. In mice, NBPs induce IL-1-dependent inflammatory reactions, such as inductions of histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine-forming enzyme) in the liver, lung, spleen, and bone marrow, an increase in granulocytic cells in the peritoneal cavity, pleural exudation, and splenomegaly. Here, we examined the involvement of IPP, TNF, macrophages, and T-cells in the inflammatory actions of alendronate (a typical NBP) in mice. Various statins (mevalonate-synthesis inhibitors) suppressed the alendronate-induced HDC inductions, while mevalonate itself augmented such inductions. IPP injection also induced HDC. Like IL-1-deficient mice, TNF-deficient mice were resistant to alendronate-stimulated HDC induction. Alendronate-stimulated HDC inductions were significantly weaker in macrophage-depleted mice and in nude mice than in control mice. Similar, though generally less clear-cut, results were obtained when other alendronate-induced inflammatory reactions were examined. These results suggest that (i) inhibition of the mevalonate pathway causes and/or modifies at least some inflammatory actions of alendronate in mice, (ii) in addition to IL-1, TNF is also involved in the inflammatory actions of alendronate, and (iii) alendronate may act on a variety of cells, including macrophages and T-cells.International Immunopharmacology 03/2007; 7(2):152-61. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2006.09.009 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IL-18, an important regulator of immune responses, is expressed in activated macrophages and also in nonimmune cells, such as keratinocytes and epithelial cells. Increased levels of serum IL-18 are reported in patients with a wide variety of diseases, but it is unclear which type of cell is the major source of serum IL-18. Here, we showed that the administration of liposomes encapsulating clodronate (Clo-lip) in mice selectively depleted F4/80(+) phagocytic macrophages in the liver and spleen. Serum levels of mature IL-18 with 18 kDa were increased markedly in mice treated with Propionibacterium acnes and LPS, whereas administration of Clo-lip and gadolinium chloride, another widely used macrophage inactivator, showed no obvious effect on serum IL-18 levels, which were marginal in the liver, lung, and spleen and more pronounced in the intestines, especially in the duodenum. Treatment with P. acnes alone induced IL-18 more than twofold in each organ, and P. acnes and LPS induced a marked increase in IL-18 levels in the liver and spleen but decreased in the intestines. The administration of Clo-lip showed only a marginal effect on the IL-18 levels in these organs. Furthermore, serum levels of liver enzymes and TNF-alpha and liver injury (necrotic change and granuloma formation) induced by P. acnes and LPS were reduced moderately by Clo-lip. These results suggest that phagocytic macrophages do not actively contribute to the induction of serum IL-18 and liver injury in mice treated with P. acnes and LPS.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 09/2007; 82(2):327-34. DOI:10.1189/jlb.1006598 · 4.30 Impact Factor