Membrane voltage modulates the GABA(A) receptor gating in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
ABSTRACT The kinetics of GABAergic currents in neurons is known to be modulated by the membrane voltage but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored. In particular, the impact of membrane potential on the GABA(A) receptor gating has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effect of membrane voltage on current responses elicited by ultrafast GABA applications was studied in cultured hippocampal neurons. The current to voltage relationship (I-V) for responses to saturating [GABA] (10 mM) showed an inward rectification (slope conductance at positive voltages was 0.62 +/- 0.05 of that at negative potentials). On the contrary, I-V for currents evoked by low [GABA] (1 microM) showed an outward rectification. The onset of currents elicited by saturating [GABA] was significantly accelerated at positive potentials. Analysis of currents evoked by prolonged applications of saturating [GABA] revealed that positive voltages significantly increased the rate and extent of desensitization. The onsets of current responses to non-saturating [GABA] were significantly accelerated at positive voltages indicating an enhancement of the binding rate. However, at low [GABA] at which the onset rate is expected to approach an asymptote set by opening/closing and unbinding rates, no significant modification of current onset by voltage was observed. Quantitative analysis based on model simulations indicated that the major effect of membrane depolarization was to increase the rates of binding, desensitization and of opening as well as to slightly reduce the rate of exit from desensitization. In conclusion, we provide evidence that membrane voltage affects the GABA(A) receptor microscopic gating.
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ABSTRACT: Neurons were obtained from the CA1 region of the hippocampus of newborn rats and maintained in culture. Channels were activated by pentobarbitone in cell-attached, inside-out or outside-out patches, normally by applying pentobarbitone in flowing bath solution. Currents were outwardly rectifying and blocked by bicuculline, properties of GABAA channels in these cells. Maximum channel conductance increased as pentobarbitone concentration was increased to 500 microM but conductance then decreased as pentobarbitone concentration was raised further. The best fit of a Hill-type equation to the relationship between maximum channel conductance and pentobarbitone concentration (up to 500 microM) gave an EC50 of 41 microM, a maximum conductance of 36 pS and a Hill coefficient of 1.6. Bicuculline decreased the maximum conductance of the channels activated by pentobarbitone, with an IC50 of 224 microM. Diazepam increased channel conductance, with a maximum effect being obtained with 1 microM diazepam. Diazepam (1 microM) decreased the EC50 of the pentobarbitone effect on channel conductance from 41 microM to 7.2 microM and increased maximum conductance to 72 pS. We conclude that GABAA channel conductance is related to the concentration of the allosteric agonist pentobarbitone.The Journal of Physiology 11/2003; 552(Pt 1):13-22. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. Electrophysiological recordings of GABAergic IPSCs and responses to applications of exogenous GABA were made from cultured murine cerebellar granule cells. In both the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, depolarization of the postsynaptic cell consistently produced a broadening of the IPSC. This voltage-dependent change in kinetics arose entirely from a slowing of the rate of current decay. The duration of miniature IPSCs was increased by a significant but lesser amount by the GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (300 microM). 2. Five millisecond applications of 1 mM GABA elicited rapidly activating, biexponentially deactivating currents in patches derived from granule cell bodies. Deactivation of these responses was slowed by membrane depolarization. This effect arose from an increased fractional participation of the slow component of deactivation. The benzodiazepine flunitrazepam (1 microM) slowed deactivation at a holding potential of -70 mV but not at +50 mV. 3. Longer-lasting applications of GABA produced substantial biexponential macroscopic desensitization. The rate of desensitization was faster at a holding potential of +50 mV than at -70 mV. The speeding of desensitization at depolarized membrane potentials arose from an increase in the fractional contribution of the fast component of desensitization. 4. When two 5 ms, 1 mM GABA applications were made at an interstimulus latency of 150 ms, the second response was consistently smaller than the first. The depression of the second response was significantly heightened when the membrane potential was depolarized from -70 to +50 mV. 5. The degree of desensitization produced was closely linked to receptor occupancy. The rate of current deactivation was also voltage dependent when non-saturating, and therefore less desensitizing, applications of GABA were analysed. In contrast, both the GABA EC50 (approximately 30 microM) and the current activation kinetics at near EC50 agonist concentrations appeared to be voltage independent.The Journal of Physiology 02/1998; 506 ( Pt 2):377-90. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electrophysiological recordings of outside-out patches to fast-flow applications of glycine were made on patches derived from the Mauthner cells of the 50-h-old zebrafish larva. As for glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), depolarizing the patch produced a broadening of the transient outside-out current evoked by short applications (1 ms) of a saturating concentration of glycine (3 mM). When the outside-out patch was depolarized from -50 to +20 mV, the peak current varied linearly with voltage. A 1-ms application of 3 mM glycine evoked currents that activated rapidly and deactivated biexponentially with time constants of approximately 5 and approximately 30 ms (holding potential of -50 mV). These two decay time constants were increased by depolarization. The fast deactivation time constant increased e-fold per 95 mV. The relative amplitude of the two decay components did not significantly vary with voltage. The fast component represented 64.2 +/- 2.8% of the total current at -50 mV and 54.1 +/- 10% at +20 mV. The 20-80% rise time of these responses did not show any voltage dependence, suggesting that the opening rate constant is insensitive to voltage. The 20-80% rise time was 0.2 ms at -70 mV and 0.22 ms at +20 mV. Responses evoked by 100-200 ms application of a low concentration of glycine (0.1 mM) had a biphasic rising phase reflecting the complex gating behavior of the glycine receptor. The time constant of these two components and their relative amplitude did not change with voltage, suggesting that modal shifts in the glycine-activated channel gating mode are not sensitive to the membrane potential. Using a Markov model to simulate glycine receptor gating behavior, we were able to mimic the voltage-dependent change in the deactivation time course of the responses evoked by 1-ms application of 3 mM glycine. This kinetics model incorporates voltage-dependent closing rate constants. It provides a good description of the time course of the onset of responses evoked by the application of a low concentration of glycine at all membrane potentials tested.Journal of Neurophysiology 12/1999; 82(5):2120-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor