Peptide YY Is a Regulator of Energy Homeostasis in Obese Children before and after Weight Loss

University of Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 12/2005; 90(12):6386-91. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2005-1357
Source: PubMed


The gut hormone peptide YY(3-36) (PYY) reduces food intake via hypothalamic Y2 receptors in the brain. There is not much known about PYY in obese children.
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of PYY in the metabolic changes in obese children and its change during weight loss.
The study was performed at a university medical center.
We studied 73 obese children and 45 age-matched normal-weight children.
We determined fasting serum total PYY and leptin by RIA in obese and normal-weight children. Fasting PYY was also measured in 28 obese children before and after completion of a 1-yr outpatient weight reduction program.
PYY, insulin, and body mass index were the main outcome measures.
Obese children demonstrated significantly lower PYY levels than lean children (median, 67 vs. 124 pg/ml; P < 0.001). Fasting PYY correlated negatively to the degree of overweight. PYY levels did not differ significantly between boys and girls, nor between prepubertal and pubertal children. The group of patients participating in the outpatient weight reduction program was divided into four quartiles according to their changes in body mass index SD score over a 1-yr period. PYY increased significantly in patients with the most effective weight loss, but decreased in the subgroup of children with weight gain.
PYY is negatively correlated to the degree of overweight, with reduced values in obese compared with normal-weight children. Decreased PYY levels could predispose subjects to develop obesity. Our results indicate that low pretreatment PYY levels that increase during weight loss may be a predictor of maintained weight loss.

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    • "However, Geliebter et al. found that obese women with BED, as compared to nonbinge eating controls, had lower levels of fasting ghrelin and significantly lower concentrations over time [14]. Inconsistent evidence to date on the effects of obesity on peptide YY (PYY), a satiety-signaling protein, underscores the need for further investigation in both adult and adolescent populations [15] [16] [17] [18]. In regard to binge eating, Geliebter et al. found no differences in PYY levels in a study of obese women with and without BED following a liquid mixed meal [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours.
    Canadian Journal of Diabetes 03/2014; 2014:312826. DOI:10.1155/2014/312826 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    • "On the other hand, it has been reported that an 8-month supervised aerobic training program decreased percent body fat and raised fasting PYY levels (Jones et al. 2009). Roth et al. (2005) observed a significant increase in fasting PYY levels in obese children who were successful in losing weight after a 1-year diet and exercise training. In addition, changes in fasting ghrelin levels by "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of exercise training on gut hormone levels after a single bout of exercise in middle-aged Japanese women. Twenty healthy middle-aged women were recruited for this study. Several measurements were performed pre and post exercise training, including: body weight and composition, peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2), energy intake after the single bout of exercise, and the release of gut hormones with fasting and after the single bout of exercise. Exercise training resulted in significant increases in acylated ghrelin fasting levels (from 126.6 ± 5.6 to 135.9 ± 5.4 pmol/l, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in GLP-1 (from 0.54 ± 0.04 to 0.55 ± 0.03 pmol/ml) and PYY (from 1.20 ± 0.07 to 1.23 ± 0.06 pmol/ml) fasting levels. GLP-1 levels post exercise training after the single bout of exercise were significantly higher than those pre exercise training (areas under the curve (AUC); from 238.4 ± 65.2 to 286.5 ± 51.2 pmol/ml x 120 min, P < 0.001). There was a tendency for higher AUC for the time courses of PYY post exercise training than for those pre exercise training (AUC; from 519.5 ± 135.5 to 551.4 ± 128.7 pmol/ml x 120 min, P = 0.06). Changes in (delta) GLP-1 AUC were significantly correlated with decreases in body weight (r = -0.743, P < 0.001), body mass index (r = -0.732, P < 0.001), percent body fat (r = -0.731, P < 0.001), and energy intake after a single bout exercise (r = -0.649, P < 0.01) and increases in peak VO2 (r = 0.558, P < 0.05). These results suggest that the ability of exercise training to create a negative energy balance relies not only directly on its impact on energy expenditure, but also indirectly on its potential to modulate energy intake.
    SpringerPlus 12/2013; 2(1):83. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-2-83
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    • "GLP-1 and PYY have been suggested to play an important role in weight management and the prevention of metabolic syndrome (Roth et al., 2005). In general, obese or sedentary individuals have lower concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY (Roth et al., 2005; Chanoine et al., 2008). Chronic exercise training significantly increases GLP-1 and PYY concentrations in fasting and postprandial states (Chanoine et al., 2008; Jones et al., 2009; Guelfi et al., 2013). "
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