Meeting transfusion safety expectations.
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 16.1). 11/2005; 143(7):537-8. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-7-200510040-00012
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ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis is characterized by a complex coagulation defect leading to the prolongation of the prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times (PT and APTT). Arbitrary PT cut-off values are still used as a yardstick to guide treatment with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) or other pro-coagulant agents in patients undergoing invasive procedures. No randomized studies on the FFP efficacy are available, and are unlikely to be carried out because of their complex organization. An interim solution could be to evaluate the in vitro thrombin generation in plasmas from patients with cirrhosis when mixed with appropriate amounts of pooled normal plasma (PNP). The PT, APTT and thrombin generations in the presence of thrombomodulin were examined in 58 patients with cirrhosis and 24 healthy subjects both before and after mixing their plasmas with PNP at a proportion of 4 + 1 (patient + PNP), chosen to mimic in vivo conditions when patients are treated with 10 ml/kg of FFP. The PT and APTT, which were abnormal in the majority of unmixed patient plasmas were shortened considerably, but did not normalize completely when mixed with PNP. Thrombin generation, which was already within normal limits in all unmixed patient plasmas, remained essentially unchanged after mixing with PNP. In conclusion, thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis does not appreciably change after in vitro addition of PNP despite PT and APTT shortening would suggest otherwise. These results question the validity of the PT as a stand-alone test to guide transfusion of FFP in the setting of chronic liver disease.Internal and Emergency Medicine 02/2011; 7(2):139-44. DOI:10.1007/s11739-011-0528-4 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pathogen-reduction (inactivation) provides a proactive approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted infection. Pathogen-reduction technologies have been successfully implemented by plasma fractionators resulting in no transmission of human immunodeficiency, hepatitis C, or hepatitis B viruses by US-licensed plasma derivatives since 1987. Fractionation technologies cannot be used to treat cellular blood components. Although blood donor screening, deferral and disease testing have drastically reduced the incidence of transfusion-transmitted diseases, the threat of new or re-emerging pathogens remains. Of particular concern is the silent emergence of a new agent with a prolonged latent period in which asymptomatic infected carriers would donate and spread infection. The ultimate goal of pathogen-inactivation is to reduce transmission of potential pathogens without significantly compromising the therapeutic efficacy of the cellular and protein constituents of blood. The acceptable technology must not introduce toxicities into the blood supply nor result in neoantigen formation and subsequent antibody production. Several promising pathogen-inactivation technologies are being developed and tested, and others are currently in use, but all of them have limits. Pathogen-reduction promises an additional ‘layer of protection’ from infectious agents and has the potential to impact the safety of blood transfusions worldwide.ISBT Science Series 02/2009; 4(1):154 - 160. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-2824.2009.01224.x
Annals of emergency medicine 06/2009; 53(5):643-6. DOI:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.03.011 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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