Pathogenesis of Gout

Arthritis Research Centre of Canada, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 16.1). 11/2005; 143(7):499-516. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-7-200510040-00009
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Available from: Anthony M Reginato, Jul 19, 2015
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    • "Their concentrations may affect human health and act as biomarkers for various diseases (Ascherio et al., 2009; Burtis & Ashwood, 2001; Choi, Mount, & Reginato, 2005; Chonchol et al., 2007; Dehghan, van Hoek, Sijbrands, Hofman, & Witteman, 2008; Gagliardi, Miname, & Santos, 2009; Harper, 1977; Heinig & Johnson, 2006; Kassirer, 1971; Krishnan, Kwoh, Schumarcher, & Kuller, 2007; Lapsia et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2011; Mouton & Holder, 2006). The abnormal high concentrations of uric acid in human plasma and urine are associated with several diseases, such as gouty arthritis, hyperuricemia, hypertension, pneumonia, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and kidney damage (Ascherio et al., 2009; Burtis & Ashwood, 2001; Choi et al., 2005; Chonchol et al., 2007; Dehghan et al., 2008; Gagliardi et al., 2009; Harper, 1977; Heinig & Johnson, 2006; Kassirer, 1971; Krishnan et al., 2007; Lapsia et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2011; Mouton & Holder, 2006). Creatinine, quantitatively excreted in the urine, is nonenzymatically formed from intracellular creatine and phosphocreatine in muscles. "
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    ABSTRACT: Creatinine (Cr), uric (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) are common constituents in human fluids. Their abnormal concentrations in human fluids are associated with various diseases. Thus, apart from the endogenous formation in human body, it is also important to examine their sources from food products. In this study, a rapid and accurate HILIC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Cr, UA and AA in bovine milk and orange juice. Milk samples were pretreated by protein precipitation, centrifugation and filtration, followed by HPLC separation and quantification using a Waters Spherisorb S5NH2 column. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of UA, AA and Cr in milk and fruit juice samples. The milk samples tested were found to contain UA and creatinine in the concentration range of 24.1-86.0 and 5.07-11.2μgmL(-1), respectively. The orange juices contain AA over 212μgmL(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 09/2015; 182. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.142 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "According to this higher concentrations of uric acid may be response to the higher levels of xanthine oxidase activity and to the oxidative stress, which is characteristic for many vascular disease states [38]. The overactivity of XO results in a condition known as gout [39], a common rheumatic disease and an acute inflammatory arthritis [40]. The treatment for hyperuricemia and gout is either increasing the excretion of uric acid or reducing the uric acid production. "
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    ABSTRACT: Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid which is excreted by kidneys. Excessive production and/or inadequate excretion of uric acid results in hyperuricemia. This paper presents a detailed review of methods of isolation, determination of xanthine oxidase activity, and the effect of plant extracts and their constituents on it. Determining the content and activities of XO can be used for diagnostic purposes. Testing inhibition of XO is important for detection of potentially effective compounds or extracts that can be used to treat diseases that are caused by increased activity of XO. In vitro bioassays are used to examine test material for XO inhibition, as inhibitors of XO may be potentially useful for the treatment of gout or other XO induced diseases. Several authors reported on the XO inhibitory potential of traditionally used medicinal plants.
    01/2015; 2015:1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/294858
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    • "Hyperuricemia occurs as a result of overproduction or aberration of renal processing of uric acid, a final catabolite of purine derived from DNA and RNA in humans [1]. The prevalence of hyperuricemia has gradually increased during the past several decades according to diverse demographic population studies, with an increased trend of serum uric acid level between observation periods [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. A total of 9400 subjects were enrolled in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, and a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Five quintiles (Q1-Q5) according to consumption of soft drinks and other fruit/fruit juices were classified and then categorized into three groups (Q1-Q3, Q4, and Q5) to assess the risk of hyperuricemia. Information on dietary intake was collected by well-trained interviewers using validated food frequency questionnaires. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (Q5) increased the risk of hyperuricemia in males (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) with a linear trend (p for trend = 0.01) and in females (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) with no linear trend (p for trend = 0.09), compared to lower consumption (Q1-Q3). However, there were no significant differences of serum uric acid level according to the three categories of soft drink consumption, Q1-Q3, Q3, and Q5, in males (p = 0.21) or in females (p = 0.16), whereas all subjects showed statistical significance of serum uric acid level within the categories (p < 0.001). Estimated amount of soft drink intake was associated with serum uric acid level in males (β = 0.001; p = 0.01) but not in females (β = 0.0005; p = 0.10). Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increased the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean population, showing a differential linear trend for hyperuricemia according to gender.
    Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism 10/2013; 43(5). DOI:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2013.10.008 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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