Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 10/2005; 62(10):1142-7. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.10.1142
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with increased risk of smoking, and some studies have suggested that inattentive symptoms specifically may underlie this risk. Few studies, however, have examined ADHD symptoms in nonclinical samples to determine the extent to which the number of symptoms-independent of the full diagnosis-confer risk for smoking-related outcomes.
To evaluate the relation between smoking-related variables and the number of retrospectively reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults.
The study population consists of 15 197 eligible participants from wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002.
Logistic regression was used to examine the relation between self-reported ADHD symptoms and the lifetime likelihood of being a regular smoker, defined by having smoked at least 1 cigarette a day for 30 days. For individuals reporting regular smoking, we also examined the extent to which ADHD symptoms predicted age at onset of regular smoking and number of cigarettes smoked.
A linear relation was identified between the number of self-reported inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and smoking outcome measures (P<.001 for each symptom domain). Controlling for demographic and conduct disorder symptoms, each reported inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom significantly increased the likelihood of ever regular smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.14 and OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13-1.19, respectively). For those reporting lifetime regular smoking, reported symptoms decreased the estimated age at onset and increased the number of cigarettes smoked.
Self-reported ADHD symptoms were found to be associated with adult smoking outcome variables in this nationally representative sample, providing further evidence of a likely link between ADHD symptoms and risk for tobacco use.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research indicates that youth with ADHD are more susceptible to nicotine use compared to those without ADHD and one explanation for this association is the self-medication theory. The present study examines nicotine use in a prospective sample derived from a community sampling procedure rather than a clinical setting. Nicotine use was measured through young adulthood (mean ages: 18, 20 and 22) and three groups were compared based on childhood status: ADHD-only, ADHD-extemalizers and control groups. Results indicated that at all three data points, individuals with childhood ADHD plus an externalizing disorder reported higher nicotine use on all variables compared to the ADHD group absent of an externalizing disorder and the comparison group of non-ADHD youth. The group differences were significant even after controlling for possible confounding variables (age, gender, and current treatment with psychostimulant medication). Study results are discussed in light of the self-medication hypothesis and of the importance of including nicotine prevention programs for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and externalizing problems.
    Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 24(1):37-45. DOI:10.1080/1067828X.2012.756442 · 0.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic neurobehavioral disorder related to clinically significant levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. ADHD begins in childhood and symptoms persist into adulthood for the majority of those with the disorder. Associated features of ADHD include emotion dysregulation and cognitive impairments, which contribute to the considerable functional impairments in this disorder. Current approved treatments are reasonably effective; however, a significant need remains for new pharmacotherapies, both for individuals who do not achieve a full therapeutic response and for symptoms that are under-treated including cognition and emotion regulation. The striking relationship between ADHD and cigarette smoking and the known effects of nicotine on cognition has spurred research into the therapeutic potential of nicotinic agents for ADHD. Although there are no approved medications for ADHD that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, results from many trials of nicotinic drugs are available and reviewed in this article. ADHD symptoms were reduced in the majority of published studies of nicotine and novel α4β2 nicotinic agonists in adult ADHD. The drugs were generally well tolerated, with mild to moderate side effects reported, which were largely consistent with cholinergic stimulation and included nausea, dizziness, and gastrointestinal distress. Within-subject crossover study designs were used in the majority of positive studies. This design may be particularly useful in ADHD trials because it minimizes variability in this notoriously heterogeneous diagnostic group. In addition, many studies found evidence for a beneficial effect of nicotinic stimulation on cognitive and emotional domains. Thus, targeting nAChRs in ADHD appears to have a modest clinical benefit in adult ADHD. Continued refinement of nAChR agonists with greater specificity and fewer side effects may lead to even more effective nAChR agonists for ADHD. Future clinical trials in ADHD should include direct measures of neuropsychological performance and emotion regulation.
    CNS Drugs 10/2014; 28(12). DOI:10.1007/s40263-014-0208-9 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) with tobacco and alcohol use has not been assessed in a young adolescent sample representative of the U.S. population. Data are from the 2000-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional sample representative of the U.S. population. Participants were age 12-15 years (N=2517). Exposure variables included diagnosis of ADHD and CD, and counts of ADHD and CD symptoms based on caregiver responses to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Primary outcomes were adolescent-report of any use of tobacco or alcohol and age of initiating use. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were conducted. Adolescents with ADHD+CD diagnoses had a 3- to 5-fold increased likelihood of using tobacco and alcohol and initiated use at a younger age compared to those with neither disorder. Having ADHD alone was associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use but not alcohol use. Hyperactive-impulsive symptom counts were not independently associated with any outcome, while every one symptom increase in inattention increased the likelihood of tobacco and alcohol use by 8-10%. Although participants with a diagnosis of CD alone (compared to those without ADHD or CD) did not have a higher likelihood of tobacco or alcohol use, for every one symptom increase in CD symptoms the odds of tobacco use increased by 31%. ADHD and CD diagnoses and symptomatology are linked to higher risk for a range of tobacco and alcohol use outcomes among young adolescents in the U.S. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 12/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.018 · 3.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014