Macroautophagy--a novel Beta-amyloid peptide-generating pathway activated in Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Macroautophagy, which is a lysosomal pathway for the turnover of organelles and long-lived proteins, is a key determinant of cell survival and longevity. In this study, we show that neuronal macroautophagy is induced early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and before beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits extracellularly in the presenilin (PS) 1/Abeta precursor protein (APP) mouse model of beta-amyloidosis. Subsequently, autophagosomes and late autophagic vacuoles (AVs) accumulate markedly in dystrophic dendrites, implying an impaired maturation of AVs to lysosomes. Immunolabeling identifies AVs in the brain as a major reservoir of intracellular Abeta. Purified AVs contain APP and beta-cleaved APP and are highly enriched in PS1, nicastrin, and PS-dependent gamma-secretase activity. Inducing or inhibiting macroautophagy in neuronal and nonneuronal cells by modulating mammalian target of rapamycin kinase elicits parallel changes in AV proliferation and Abeta production. Our results, therefore, link beta-amyloidogenic and cell survival pathways through macroautophagy, which is activated and is abnormal in AD.
SourceAvailable from: Carmela Matrone[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The intracellular transport and localization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are critical determinants of APP processing and β-amyloid peptide production, thus crucially important for the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Notably, the C-terminal Y682ENPTY687 domain of APP binds to specific adaptors controlling APP trafficking and sorting in neurons. Mutation on the Y682 residue to glycine (Y682G) leads to altered APP sorting in hippocampal neurons that favors its accumulation in intracellular compartments and the release of soluble APPα. Such alterations induce premature aging and learning and cognitive deficits in APP Y682G mutant mice (APPYG/YG). Here, we report that Y682G mutation affects formation of the APP complex with sortilin-related receptor (SorLA), resulting in endo-lysosomal dysfunctions and neuronal degeneration. Moreover, disruption of the APP/SorLA complex changes the trafficking pathway of SorLA, with its consequent increase in secretion outside neurons. Mutations in the SorLA gene are a prognostic factor in AD, and increases in SorLA levels in cerebrospinal fluid are predictive of AD in humans. These results might open new possibilities in comprehending the role played by SorLA in its interaction with APP and in the progression of neuronal degeneration. In addition, they further underline the crucial role played by Y682 residue in controlling APP trafficking in neurons.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00109 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process for degrading cellular cargo. Aging organelles and protein aggregates are degraded by the autophagosome-lysosome pathway, which is particularly crucial in neurons. There is increasing evidence implicating defective autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Recent work using live-cell imaging has identified autophagy as a predominantly polarized process in neuronal axons; autophagosomes preferentially form at the axon tip and undergo retrograde transport back towards the cell body. Autophagosomes engulf cargo including damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) and protein aggregates, and subsequently fuse with lysosomes during axonal transport to effectively degrade their internalized cargo. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we review recent progress on the dynamics of the autophagy pathway in neurons and highlight the defects observed at each step of this pathway during neurodegeneration. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.Journal of Cell Science 04/2015; 128(7):1259-1267. DOI:10.1242/jcs.161216 · 5.33 Impact Factor
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; DOI:10.2147/NDT.S75717 · 2.15 Impact Factor