Article

Adolescent vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure: findings from rodent models.

Psychology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research (Impact Factor: 3.31). 10/2005; 29(9):1720-5. DOI: 10.1097/01.alc.0000179220.79356.e5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This article presents an overview of the proceedings from a symposium entitled "Is adolescence special? Possible age-related vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure," organized by Susan Barron and Linda Spear and held at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. This symposium, co-sponsored by the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Study Group and the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society, focused on our current knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of ethanol and/or nicotine exposure during adolescence with the emphasis on data from rodent models. The support from these two societies represents the understanding by these research groups that adolescence represents a unique developmental stage for the effects of chronic drug exposure and also marks an age in which many risky behaviors including alcohol consumption and smoking typically begin. The speakers included (1) Aaron White, who presented data on the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequent motor or cognitive response to an ethanol challenge in adulthood; (2) Richard Bell, who presented data suggesting that genetic differences could play a role in adolescent vulnerability to ethanol; (3) Craig Slawecki, who presented data looking at the effects of chronic exposure to alcohol or nicotine on neurophysiologic and behavioral end points; and (4) Ed Levin, who presented data on acute and long-term consequences of adolescent nicotine exposure. Finally, Linda Spear provided some summary points and recommendations regarding unresolved issues and future directions.

0 Followers
 · 
154 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescents display increased vulnerability to engage in drug experimentation. This is often considered a risk factor for later drug abuse. In this scenario, the permanent effects of cocaine exposure during adolescence on anxiety levels and stress responsivity, which may result in behavioral phenotypes prone to addiction, are now starting to be unveiled. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-lasting effects of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress response. Adolescent male Wistar rats were daily-administered 45 mg cocaine/kg of body weight in 3 equal intraperitoneal doses with 1h interval, from postnatal day 35 to 50. The effects of cocaine administration on anxiety levels, assessed in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and on social stress response, assessed in the Resident-Intruder paradigm, were evaluated 10 days after withdrawal, when rats were reaching the adulthood. The underlying dopaminergic activity, and the corticosterone and testosterone levels were determined. Our results showed that cocaine induced long-lasting alterations in the HPA axis function and in testosterone levels. Such alterations resulted in significant and enduring changes in behavioral responses to environment challenges, such as the EPM and R/I, including the evaluation of potential threats that may lead to high-risk behavior and low benefit choices. This was further supported by an altered dopaminergic function in the amygdala and hippocampus. The present findings provide new insights into how the use of cocaine during adolescent development may modulate emotional behavior later in life. Compromised ability to recognize and deal with potential threats is an important risk factor to perpetuate compulsive drug seeking and relapse susceptibility.
    Neuroscience 07/2014; 277. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.07.008 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many studies document racial disparities in the American educational system, finding that white students generally outperform black students. Researchers justifiably focus on structural explanations for such disparities, but generally pay less attention to more proximate influences on academic achievement. However, studies have found that substance use negatively impacts adolescent academic achievement; other findings on race and substance use suggest that this relationship could be more damaging for black students. This paper uses National Education Longitudinal Study data to determine if substance use negatively impacts the academic achievement of high school students, and if black students are more negatively affected than whites. The analysis finds that substance use has a negative impact on academic achievement, even while controlling for a range of known influences on academic achievement. However, this relationship is not found to be more damaging to black students, probably due to white students' higher level of substance use.
    Sociological focus 02/2009; 42(1):20-38. DOI:10.1080/00380237.2009.10571341
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e100697. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100697 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
143 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014