[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in mid-1995, the prognosis for HIV-infected individuals has brightened dramatically. However, the conjunction of potent antiviral therapy and longer life expectancy may engender a variety of health risks that, heretofore, HIV specialists have not had to confront. The long-term effects of HIV infection itself and exposure to antiretroviral agents is unknown. Several aspects of aging, including psychiatric disease, neurocognitive impairment, and metabolic and hormonal disorders, may be influenced by chronic exposure to HIV and/or HIV therapeutics. In this paper, we discuss the health issues confronting HIV-infected older adults and areas for future research.
Journal of Urban Health 02/2006; 83(1):31-42. DOI:10.1007/s11524-005-9005-6 · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular risk factors, including the fat redistribution syndrome, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, have been increasingly described in association with new potent protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapies in patients with HIV infection. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in clinical practice has altered the natural history of HIV remarkably, leading to a notable extension of life expectancy, and prolonged lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities are expected to lead to significant effects on the long-term prognosis and outcome of HIV-infected patients. Prediction modelling, surrogate markers and hard cardiovascular end points suggest an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases in HIV-infected subjects receiving HAART, even though the absolute risk of cardiovascular complications remains low, and must be balanced against the evident virological, immunological and clinical benefits descending from combination antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, the assessment of cardiovascular risk should be performed on a regular basis in HIV-positive individuals, especially after initiation or change of antiretroviral treatment. Appropriate lifestyle measures (including smoking cessation, dietary changes and aerobic physical activity) are critical points, and switching HAART may be considered, although maintaining viremic control should be the main goal of therapy. Pharmacological treatment of dyslipidaemia (usually with statins and fibrates) and hyperglycaemia (with insulin-sensitising agents and thiazolidinediones) becomes suitable when lifestyle modifications and switching therapy are ineffective or not applicable.
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