Article

Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal marine sediments receiving industrial effluents in Kuwait.

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.96). 02/2006; 50(2):166-74. DOI: 10.1007/s00244-005-7070-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in surficial sediments receiving industrial and municipal effluents in Kuwait. The SigmaPCB concentrations varied by two orders of magnitude ranging from 0.4 to 84 microg kg(-1) dw. The homologue distribution in the study favored the more chlorinated congeners and generally followed the order: penta-PCBs > hexa-PCBs > tetra-PCBs approximately hepta-PCBs, with the dominant congeners being 138, 101, 110, 180, 153, 132, 149, and 118. The spatial distribution revealed significant intersite difference in concentration, with high levels encountered close to a harbor and several wastewater outlets suggesting that point source input is the primary delivery mechanism of PCBs to the sediment. This study suggests that atmospheric deposition of PCBs may not be a significant delivery mechanism to sediments in Kuwait possibly due to low annual precipitation and high annual temperatures that are experienced in the Arabian Gulf. The implication of this observation is that PCBs in air are likely to remain in the gas phase long enough to be subject to long-range atmospheric transport to other regions.

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    • "Recently, however, some attempts have been made to report on the levels of POPs in Kuwait's marine environment (Gevao et al. 2006a, b, 2008, 2009, 2010). We previously reported on the spatial distribution of PCBs in sediments facing a major industrial complex in southern Kuwait (Gevao et al. 2006b). Here we reconstruct the input chronology of PCBs in sediments from the northwestern Arabian Gulf from which to assess the impact of control measures on the use of PCBs in the region. "
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    ABSTRACT: Surficial sediment samples were obtained from 25 locations within Kuwait Bay and outside the Bay, in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, to access recent pollution in Kuwait. The historical deposition of PBDEs to this portion of the Arabian Gulf was reconstructed by collecting a sediment core at the entrance of Kuwait Bay. The mean (and range) in concentrations of ∑11PBDEs in surficial sediments was 0.164±0.09 (0.06-0.44) pg/gdw. The concentrations measured in Kuwait Bay were generally higher than those measured in the open Gulf. When the concentrations were normalized to organic carbon, the average ∑11PBDEs concentrations measured in Kuwait Bay were seven times higher than average concentrations outside the Bay. The historical record, reconstructed from a sediment core collected at the entrance of Kuwait Bay, showed that Σ11PBDE concentrations were generally low in deeper sediment sections. The concentrations started to increase above background in the mid-1950s and increased sharply to a maximum Σ11PBDE concentration of ca 1100pg/g in the late 1980s. Concentrations decreased thereafter until another pulse in concentrations was observed around the early 2000 followed by a decrease in subsequent years. It is likely that the initial pulse in concentration recorded in sediments is related to inputs from the Gulf war of 1991. The penta congeners were observed throughout the length of the core although the concentrations were low. The congeners present in the Deca-PBDE technical mixture, particularly BDE 209 which is the main congener in the Deca-BDE mixture, occurred in sediment cores around the 1980s, and the concentrations increased rapidly thereafter being the most dominant congener since their first detection in sediments. The presence of nona-BDE congeners in proportions exceeding those in commercial mixtures may be suggestive of debromination of BDE 209 in sediments.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; 491. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.122 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, however, some attempts have been made to report on the levels of POPs in Kuwait's marine environment (Gevao et al. 2006a, b, 2008, 2009, 2010). We previously reported on the spatial distribution of PCBs in sediments facing a major industrial complex in southern Kuwait (Gevao et al. 2006b). Here we reconstruct the input chronology of PCBs in sediments from the northwestern Arabian Gulf from which to assess the impact of control measures on the use of PCBs in the region. "
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    ABSTRACT: The vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf to reconstruct their depositional history. The downcore profile showed an increase in concentrations from depth to a subsurface maximum of approximately 1,500 pg g(-1) in approximately 1991, followed by an exponential decrease to the sediment-water interface. Current concentrations of ΣPCBs are similar to levels predating the episodic input of PCBs in sediments dated coincident with the 1991 Arabian Gulf war. The spike in ΣPCB concentrations during the war may be related to the destruction of PCB-laden transformers during the conflict. The 15-fold decrease in ΣPCB concentrations from the period of maximum flux to prewar levels suggests that the factors delivering PCBs to sediments at present are similar to those that that existed before the war-related inputs.
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 01/2012; 62(4):549-56. DOI:10.1007/s00244-011-9739-y · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    • "There is a dearth of information on POPs in the Middle East, and in Kuwait in particular, especially for emerging POPs, such as PBDEs. Reports in the literature on POPs are limited to PCBs and POPs (Fowler 2002; Gevao et al. 2006b; Readman et al. 1992). Studies on PBDEs are still in their infancy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in three species of fish (yellowfin seabream [Acanthopagrus latus, a predatory fish]; Klunzinger's mullet [Liza klunzingeri, a pelagic fish]; and large-scaled tonguesole [Cynoglossus arel, a demersal fish]) collected from two sites in the northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf, a marginal sea of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. Concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from 11 to 57 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) for mullet, 5.0-38 ng g(-1) lw for tonguesole, and 2.8-48 ng g(-1) lw for seabream in Kuwait Bay, whereas in the open gulf, concentrations ranged from 6.0 to 160 lw for mullet, 8.3-190 lw for tonguesole, and 7.1-62 for lw for seabream. The congener composition in all species from both sites was dominated by BDEs 47, 99, and 100, which together constituted approximately 90% of the congeners detected. Although no statistically significant intersite differences were found, ΣPBDEs concentrations in mullet were significantly higher than those in seabream (p = 0.01). However, no significant differences existed between mullet and tonguesole (p = 0.28) or between tonguesole and seabream (p = 0.06). ΣPBDE concentrations were negatively correlated with fish mass for all species; however, the correlations were statistically insignificant, suggesting a growth dilution effect.
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 05/2011; 60(4):636-42. DOI:10.1007/s00244-010-9579-1 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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