Cost-Effectiveness of Implantable Cardioverter–Defibrillators

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27715, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 11/2005; 353(14):1471-80. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa051989
Source: PubMed


Eight randomized trials have evaluated whether the prophylactic use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) improves survival among patients who are at risk for sudden death due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction but who have not had a life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of the ICD in the populations represented in these primary-prevention trials.
We developed a Markov model of the cost, quality of life, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness of the prophylactic implantation of an ICD, as compared with control therapy, among patients with survival and mortality rates similar to those in each of the clinical trials. We modeled the efficacy of the ICD as a reduction in the relative risk of death on the basis of the hazard ratios reported in the individual clinical trials.
Use of the ICD increased lifetime costs in every trial. Two trials--the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Patch Trial and the Defibrillator in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT)--found that the prophylactic implantation of an ICD did not reduce the risk of death and thus was both more expensive and less effective than control therapy. For the other six trials--the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) I, MADIT II, the Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial (MUSTT), the Defibrillators in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation (DEFINITE) trial, the Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure (COMPANION) trial, and the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT)--the use of an ICD was projected to add between 1.01 and 2.99 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) and between 68,300 dollars and 101,500 dollars in cost. Using base-case assumptions, we found that the cost-effectiveness of the ICD as compared with control therapy in these six populations ranged from 34,000 dollars to 70,200 dollars per QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that this cost-effectiveness ratio would remain below 100,000 dollars per QALY as long as the ICD reduced mortality for seven or more years.
Prophylactic implantation of an ICD has a cost-effectiveness ratio below 100,000 dollars per QALY gained in populations in which a significant device-related reduction in mortality has been demonstrated.

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    • "These factors are of equal importance in an elderly group of patients. According to recent studies costs remained under 100,000 $ per quality adjusted life year gained when the expected survival was ≥7 years [9, 21]. Median survival in our group is estimated at around 4.2 years implicating that the cost per quality adjusted life year gained is higher. "
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    ABSTRACT: The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is effective in preventing sudden cardiac death. However, in elderly patients (aged 75 years or older) the role of ICDs is still not well-defined and controversial. We retrospectively analysed all clinical and survival data of all ICD patients who were ≥75 years at the date of implantation in the Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands and the University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed, and mortality predictors were identified. Mortality of the cohort was compared with a random sample of patients aged 60-70 years originating from the same database and to an age- and sex-matched cohort of Dutch persons. The study cohort consisted of 179 patients aged 75 years or older who were implanted between February 1999 and July 2008. The median follow-up time was 2.0 (IQR 2.8) years. Survival rates after 1, 2 and 3 years were 87, 82, 75 %, respectively. Survival was similar for primary and secondary prevention. Mortality in this study population could be predicted by combining four clinical risk factors: QRS duration >120 ms, NYHA class > II, renal failure and atrial fibrillation (AF). Survival was worse compared with the group of ICD patients aged 60-70 years and to the age- and sex-matched group of elderly persons. However, survival was not significantly worse when comparing elderly ICD patients without additional risk factors to the general population. Elderly patients still have an acceptable survival probability independent of prevention indication, certainly if there are no additional clinical risk factors. The presence or absence of additional clinical risk factors should be taken into account when making the decision for implantation, since they strongly correlate with survival.
    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 05/2014; 22(6). DOI:10.1007/s12471-014-0553-9 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, for many years, there has always been an urgent need to develop as friendly as possible IMDs with higher performances, e.g. cost-effective, easy-operation, minimally invasive feature and miniaturization etc1516. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional transplantable biomedical devices generally request sophisticated surgery which however often causes big trauma and serious pain to the patients. Here, we show an alternative way of directly making three-dimensional (3-D) medical electronics inside the biological body through sequential injections of biocompatible packaging material and liquid metal ink. As the most typical electronics, a variety of medical electrodes with different embedded structures were demonstrated to be easily formed at the target tissues. Conceptual in vitro experiments provide strong evidences for the excellent performances of the injectable electrodes. Further in vivo animal experiments disclosed that the formed electrode could serve as both highly efficient ECG (Electrocardiograph) electrode and stimulator electrode. These findings clarified the unique features and practicability of the liquid metal based injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics. The present strategy opens the way for directly manufacturing electrophysiological sensors or therapeutic devices in situ via a truly minimally invasive approach.
    Scientific Reports 12/2013; 3:3442. DOI:10.1038/srep03442 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    • "The flexible sensor technology, which is currently under research and development phase and being tested in animal models, would offer a promising solution in this area (Kim et al., 2012a). The flexible wireless sensors incorporated into the ICD device would be a step forward toward new generation ICDs (Sanders et al., 2005). The cardiac surface is curvilinear and soft, hindering the development of devices for bio-integration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Arrhythmias are the most common cause of death associated with sudden death and are common in US and worldwide. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), evolving from pacemakers and development of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), has been adopted for therapeutic use and demonstrated benefits in patients over the years due to its design and intricate functionality. Recent research has been focused on significant design improvement and efforts are dedicated toward device size reduction, weight and functionality in commercially available ICD's since its invention in the 1960's. Commercially available CRT-D has shown advancement on both clinical and technical side. However, improved focus is required on the device miniaturization, technologically supported and integrated wireless based system for real time heart monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG). In the present report a concise overview for the state-of-the art technology in ICDs and avenues for future development are presented. A unique perspective is also included for ICD device miniaturization and integration of flexible sensing array. Sensor array integration along with its capabilities for identifying localized arrhythmia detection and targeted stimulation for enhancing ICD device capabilities is reviewed.
    Frontiers in Physiology 10/2013; 4:300. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00300 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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