Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Ibuprofen in Rats by Poloxamer Gel Using Poloxamer 188 and Menthol
ABSTRACT To improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble ibuprofen with poloxamer and menthol, the effects of menthol and poloxamer 188 on the aqueous solubility of ibuprofen were investigated. The dissolution and pharmacokinetic study of ibuprofen delivered by the ibuprofen-loaded preparations composed of poloxamer 188 and menthol were then performed. In the absence of poloxamer, the solubility of ibuprofen increased until the ratio of menthol to ibuprofen increased from 0:10 to 4:6 followed by an abrupt decrease in solubility above the ratio of 4:6, indicating that four parts menthol formed eutectic mixture with six parts ibuprofen. In the presence of poloxamer, the solutions with the same ratio of menthol to ibuprofen showed an abrupt increase in the solubility of ibuprofen. The poloxamer gel with menthol/ibuprofen ratio of 1:9 and higher than 15% poloxamer 188 showed the maximum solubility of ibuprofen, 1.2 mg/mL. The simultaneous addition of menthol and poloxamer 188 significantly improved the dissolution rates of ibuprofen from aqueous solution due to the ibuprofen solubility-improving effect of menthol in the presence of poloxamer. Furthermore, the ibuprofen-loaded preparation with menthol and poloxamer 188 gave significantly higher initial plasma concentrations, Cmax, and AUC of ibuprofen than did the preparation without menthol and poloxamer 188, indicating that the simultaneous addition of menthol and poloxamer 188 could improve the oral bioavailability of ibuprofen in rats. In modern pain management it is always desirable for the ibuprofen-loaded preparation with poloxamer 188 and menthol to show a rapid onset of action with a minimal phase of lag time to feel the decreased pain. From an industry point of view, it is more desirable for a formulation to be fast acting, easy to use, and cost effective. Thus, the ibuprofen-loaded preparation with poloxamer 188 and menthol was a more effective oral dosage form for poorly water-soluble ibuprofen.
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ABSTRACT: A flight route monitor for terminal control area (TCA) application in air traffic control (ATC) including constraints is presented. To increase flight security, some restricted areas in the TCA are specified to limit flight activities in terms of simple equations. The aircrafts are monitored with those created constrained boundaries. ATC controllers will be alerted to any constraint violation. The constrained flight route monitor assists the ATC controller for additional functions. A knowledge-based system is introduced to handle all routine procedures in ATC. This system is implemented into PC-AT using Turbo-Prolog. It demonstrates some useful functions for ATC automation. A prototype expert system has been implemented and demonstrated for TCA operation using the example of the Hua-Lien TCA in the Taipei Flight Information RegionAerospace and Electronics Conference, 1992. NAECON 1992., Proceedings of the IEEE 1992 National; 06/1992
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ABSTRACT: Surfactants can be used to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in water and to increase drug bioavailability. In this article, the aqueous solubilization of the nonsteroidal, antiinflammatory drug ibuprofen is studied experimentally and theoretically in micellar solutions of anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), cationic (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), and nonionic (dodecyl octa(ethylene oxide), C12E8) surfactants possessing the same hydrocarbon "tail" length but differing in their hydrophilic headgroups. We find that, for these three surfactants, the aqueous solubility of ibuprofen increases linearly with increasing surfactant concentration. In particular, we observed a 16-fold increase in the solubility of ibuprofen relative to that in the aqueous buffer upon the addition of 80 mM DTAB and 80 mM C12E8 but only a 5.5-fold solubility increase upon the addition of 80 mM SDS. The highest value of the molar solubilization capacity (chi) was obtained for DTAB (chi = 0.97), followed by C12E8 (chi = 0.72) and finally by SDS (chi = 0.23). A recently developed computer simulation/molecular-thermodynamic modeling approach was extended to predict theoretically the solubilization behavior of the three ibuprofen/surfactant mixtures considered. In this modeling approach, molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations were used to identify which portions of ibuprofen are exposed to water (hydrated) in a micellar environment by simulating a single ibuprofen molecule at an oil/water interface (modeling the micelle core/water interface). On the basis of this input, molecular-thermodynamic modeling was then implemented to predict (i) the micellar composition as a function of surfactant concentration, (ii) the aqueous solubility of ibuprofen as a function of surfactant concentration, and (iii) the molar solubilization capacity (chi). Our theoretical results on the solubility of ibuprofen in aqueous SDS and C12E8 surfactant solutions are in good agreement with the experimental data. The ibuprofen solubility in aqueous DTAB solutions was somewhat overpredicted because of challenges associated with accurately modeling the strong electrostatic interactions between the anionic ibuprofen and the cationic DTAB. Our results indicate that computer simulations of ibuprofen at a flat oil/water interface can be used to obtain accurate information about the hydrated and the unhydrated portions of ibuprofen in a micellar environment. This information can then be used as input to a molecular-thermodynamic model of self-assembly to successfully predict the aqueous solubilization behavior of ibuprofen in the three surfactant systems studied.Langmuir 03/2006; 22(4):1514-25. DOI:10.1021/la052530k · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology, or systems/device manufacture at sizes generally ranging between 1 and 100 nm, is a multidisciplinary scientific field undergoing explosive development. The genesis of nanotechnology can be traced to advances in medicine, communications, genomics and robotics. One of the greatest values of nanotechnology will be in the development of new and effective medical treatments (i.e. nanomedicine). This review focuses on the potential of nanomedicine as it relates to the development of nanoparticles for enabling and improving the targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. We highlight the use of nanoparticles for specific intra-compartmental analysis using the examples of delivery to malignant cancers, to the central nervous system, and across the gastrointestinal barriers.Journal of Drug Targeting 05/2007; 15(3):163-83. DOI:10.1080/10611860701231810 · 2.72 Impact Factor