The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis.

James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation-117, 13000 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612, USA.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (Impact Factor: 2.7). 08/2005; 11(4):345-57. DOI: 10.1017/S1355617705050411
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is increasing interest in the potential neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion. A meta-analysis of the relevant literature was conducted to determine the impact of sports-related concussion across six cognitive domains. The analysis was based on 21 studies involving 790 cases of concussion and 2014 control cases. The overall effect of concussion (d = 0.49) was comparable to the effect found in the non-sports-related mild traumatic brain injury population (d = 0.54; Belanger et al., 2005). Using sports-concussed participants with a history of prior head injury appears to inflate the effect sizes associated with the current sports-related concussion. Acute effects (within 24 hr of injury) of concussion were greatest for delayed memory, memory acquisition, and global cognitive functioning (d = 1.00, 1.03, and 1.42, respectively). However, no residual neuropsychological impairments were found when testing was completed beyond 7 days postinjury. These findings were moderated by cognitive domain and comparison group (control group versus preconcussion self-control). Specifically, delayed memory in studies utilizing a control group remained problematic at 7 days. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

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