Translating Research into Improved Outcomes in Comprehensive Cancer Control

Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd. EPN 6144, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Cancer Causes and Control (Impact Factor: 2.74). 11/2005; 16 Suppl 1(S1):27-40. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-005-0488-y
Source: PubMed


A key question in moving comprehensive cancer control (CCC) plans into action is, to what extent should the knowledge gained from investments in cancer prevention and control research influence the actions taken by states, tribes, and territories during implementation? Underlying this 'should' is the assumption that evidence-based approaches (i.e., a public health or clinical intervention or policy that has resulted in improved outcomes when scientifically tested), when implemented in a real-world setting, will increase the likelihood of improved outcomes. This article elucidates the barriers and opportunities for integrating science with practice across the cancer control continuum. However, given the scope of CCC and the substantial investment in generating new knowledge through science, it is difficult for any one agency, on its own, to make a sufficient investment to ensure new knowledge is translated and implemented at a national, state, or local level. Thus, if greater demand for evidence-based interventions and increased resources for adopting them are going to support the dissemination initiatives described herein, new interagency partnerships must be developed to ensure that sufficient means are dedicated to integrating science with service. Furthermore, for these collaborations to increase both in size and in frequency, agency leaders must clearly articulate their support for these collaborative initiatives and explicitly recognize those collaborative efforts that are successful. In this way, the whole (in this context, comprehensive cancer control) can become greater than the sum of its parts.

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    • "However, it is unrealistic to expect warning labels to have substantial effects at the population level without integration with a range of other alcohol control measures. As in the case of tobacco, it is likely that the best outcomes will be achieved by implementing a complementary suite of strategies that in combination can modify individual behaviors and social norms [4, 49]. Further research is therefore needed to investigate the optimal combination of strategies to achieve this objective. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is growing evidence of the increased cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption, but this is not well understood by the general public. This study investigated the acceptability among drinkers of cancer warning statements for alcoholic beverages. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Australian drinkers to develop a series of cancer-related warning statements for alcohol products. Eleven cancer warning statements and one general health warning statement were subsequently tested on 2,168 drinkers via an online survey. The statements varied by message frame (positive vs negative), cancer reference (general vs specific), and the way causality was communicated (‘increases risk of cancer’ vs ‘can cause cancer’). Results Overall, responses to the cancer statements were neutral to favorable, indicating that they are unlikely to encounter high levels of negative reaction from the community if introduced on alcoholic beverages. Females, younger respondents, and those with higher levels of education generally found the statements to be more believable, convincing, and personally relevant. Positively framed messages, those referring to specific forms of cancer, and those using ‘increases risk of cancer’ performed better than negatively framed messages, those referring to cancer in general, and those using the term ‘can cause cancer’. Conclusion Cancer warning statements on alcoholic beverages constitute a potential means of increasing awareness about the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer risk.
    BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):786. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-786 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Pilot testing of the process evaluation plan was recommended as one of the lessons learned. This type of research is needed to discover the best ways to translate evidence into practice, including interventions in faith-based settings that use community-engaged research methods [12]. Dissemination/implementation research is fundamental in determining the mechanisms underlying successful implementation of interventions, particularly those serving culturally and ethnically diverse populations [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Community-based approaches have been increasing in the effort to raise awareness and early detection for cancer and other chronic disease. However, many times, such interventions are tested in randomized trials, become evidence-based, and then fail to reach further use in the community. Project HEAL (Health through Early Awareness and Learning) is an implementation trial that aims to compare two strategies of implementing evidence-based cancer communication interventions in African American faith-based organizations. Method This article describes the community-engaged process of transforming three evidence-based cancer communication interventions into a coherent, branded strategy for training community health advisors with two delivery mechanisms. Peer community health advisors receive training through either a traditional classroom approach (with high technical assistance/support) or a web-based training portal (with low technical assistance/support). Results We describe the process, outline the intervention components, report on the pilot test, and conclude with lessons learned from each of these phases. Though the pilot phase showed feasibility, it resulted in modifications to data collection protocols and team and community member roles and expectations. Conclusions Project HEAL offers a promising strategy to implement evidence-based interventions in community settings through the use of technology. There could be wider implications for chronic disease prevention and control.
    Implementation Science 05/2014; 9(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1748-5908-9-66 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    • "Community-based organizations (CBOs) are essential, but often underutilized, channels for health promotion efforts [1,2]. Much of the impact of CBOs derives from their relationships with other CBOs, community members, and other stakeholders [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popular social media channels, the types of content typically shared, and the extent to which the interactive aspects of social media tools are utilized. We assessed the social media presence and patterns of usage of CBOs engaged in health promotion in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts. We coded content on three popular channels: Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. We used content analysis techniques to quantitatively summarize posts, tweets, and videos on these channels, respectively. For each organization, we coded all content put forth by the CBO on the three channels in a 30-day window. Two coders were trained and conducted the coding. Data were collected between November 2011 and January 2012. A total of 166 organizations were included in our census. We found that 42% of organizations used at least one of the channels of interest. Across the three channels, organization promotion was the most common theme for content (66% of posts, 63% of tweets, and 93% of videos included this content). Most organizations updated Facebook and Twitter content at rates close to recommended frequencies. We found limited interaction/engagement with audience members. Much of the use of social media tools appeared to be uni-directional, a flow of information from the organization to the audience. By better leveraging opportunities for interaction and user engagement, these organizations can reap greater benefits from the non-trivial investment required to use social media well. Future research should assess links between use patterns and organizational characteristics, staff perspectives, and audience engagement.
    BMC Public Health 12/2013; 13(1):1129. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1129 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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