Cognitive profiles of individual patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia: Comparison with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease
ABSTRACT We describe the pattern of cognitive profiles within a community-based sample of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia (PDD) using cluster analyses, and compare the results with data from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Fifty patients with PDD and 39 with AD from Stavanger, Norway, and 62 patients with DLB from San Diego, CA, USA were diagnosed by either standardized clinical procedures or criteria (all PDD and all AD cases) or necropsy (all DLB cases). Four subgroups were identified: two subgroups with a subcortical cognitive profile (one with mild and one with moderate dementia severity), one subgroup with global impairment and severe dementia, and one subgroup with a cortical cognitive profile and moderate dementia. Of the patients with PDD and with DLB, 56% and 55%, respectively, had a subcortical cognitive profile, compared with only 33% of the AD patients. Conversely, 30% of the patients with PDD and 26% of those with DLB had a cortical cognitive profile, compared with 67% of the patients with AD. These findings suggest that in some patients with PDD, frontosubcortical changes are the main contributing factor to dementia, whereas in other patients, cortical and hippocampal changes are more important.
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ABSTRACT: The hypothesis has been advanced that memory disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are related to either retrieval or consolidation failure. However, the characteristics of the memory impairments of PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment have not been clarified. This study was aimed at investigating whether memory deficits in PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (PDaMCI) are due to failure of retrieval or consolidation processes. Sixteen individuals with PDaMCI, 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment without PD (aMCINPD), and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Participants were administered the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. An index of cueing was computed for each subject to capture the advantage in retrieval of cued compared to free recall. Individuals with PDaMCI performed worse than healthy controls on the free recall (p<0.01) but not the cued recall (p>0.10) task, and they performed better than aMCINPD subjects on both recall measures (p<0.01). The index of cueing of subjects with PD was comparable to that of healthy controls (p>0.10) but it was significantly higher than that of the aMCINPD sample (p<0.01). Moreover, PD patients' performance on free recall trials was significantly predicted by scores on a test investigating executive functions (i.e., the Modified Card Sorting Test; p = 0.042). Findings of the study document that, in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment associated to PD, episodic memory impairment is related to retrieval rather than to consolidation failure. The same data suggest that, in these individuals, memory deficits might be due to altered frontal-related executive functioning.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86233. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086233 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared a cognition-specific computer-based cognitive training program with a motion-controlled computer sports game that is not cognition-specific for their ability to enhance cognitive performance in various cognitive domains in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Patients with PD were trained with either a computer program designed to enhance cognition (CogniPlus, 19 patients) or a computer sports game with motion-capturing controllers (Nintendo Wii, 20 patients). The effect of training in 5 cognitive domains was measured by neuropsychological testing at baseline and after training. Group differences over all variables were assessed with multivariate analysis of variance, and group differences in single variables were assessed with 95% confidence intervals of mean difference. The groups were similar regarding age, sex, and educational level. Patients with PD who were trained with Wii for 4 weeks performed better in attention (95% confidence interval: -1.49 to -0.11) than patients trained with CogniPlus. In our study, patients with PD derived at least the same degree of cognitive benefit from non-cognition-specific training involving movement as from cognition-specific computerized training. For patients with PD, game consoles may be a less expensive and more entertaining alternative to computer programs specifically designed for cognitive training. This study provides Class III evidence that, in patients with PD, cognition-specific computer-based training is not superior to a motion-controlled computer game in improving cognitive performance.Neurology 03/2014; 82(14). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000287 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Voxel-based morphometry is gaining considerable interest for studies examining Parkinson's disease dementia patients. In this study, 12 patients with clinically defined Parkinson's disease and dementia and 12 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease were examined using a T1WI three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo sequence. Gray matter data were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry method and independent sample t-test based on Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software. Differences in gray matter volume were represented with statistical parametric mapping. Compared with Parkinson's disease patients without dementia, decreased gray matter volume in Parkinson's disease dementia patients was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate and left cingulate gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, right precuneus and right cuneus, left inferior frontal gyrus and left insular lobe. No increased gray matter volume was apparent. These data indicate that gray matter atrophy in the limbic system and cerebral neocortex is related to the presence of dementia.Neural Regeneration Research 05/2013; 8(14):1276-85. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.14.004 · 0.23 Impact Factor