MRP2 (ABCC2) and cisplatin sensitivity in hepatocytes and human ovarian carcinoma
ABSTRACT The ABC transporter MRP2 (ABCC2) can mediate cisplatin efflux, and over-expression of MRP2 has been associated with cisplatin resistance in cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine the role of MRP2 in modulating cisplatin cytotoxicity in normal cells as well as the relationship between MRP2 expression and clinical response to platinum-based agents in ovarian cancer.
The effect of absence of MRP2 expression on cisplatin sensitivity was investigated using primary hepatocyte cultures from the TR- rat strain, which is deficient in Mrp2. We also examined MRP2 expression immunohistochemically in human ovarian tumors exhibiting extremes of clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy, either absolute platin resistance or patients with residual disease after surgery who experienced extremely long complete response to primary platinum-based chemotherapy.
Primary hepatocyte cultures from Mrp2-deficient TR- rats were over threefold more sensitive to cisplatin and accumulated a twofold greater amount of platinum on DNA that wild-type rat hepatocytes. In human ovarian carcinomas, MRP2 was detected by immunohistochemistry in 3/13 (23%) tumors from patients with absolute platin resistance compared with 5/9 (56%) tumors from patients with prolonged survival following treatment including a platinum-based agent.
These studies indicate that MRP2 may play an important role in modulating normal tissue response to cisplatin. However, MRP2 expression occurred only in a subset of primary ovarian cancers, was frequently aberrant in location and was not correlated with clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines with cytoplasmically sequestered mutant p53 (p53(mut_c)) are frequently more resistant to cisplatin (CDDP) than cells with mutant but nuclear p53 (p53(mut_n)). The aim of the study was to identify underlying mechanisms implicated in CDDP resistance of HNSCC cells carrying cytoplasmic p53(mut). Microarray analysis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to identify and evaluate candidate genes involved in CDDP resistance of p53(mut_c) cells. RNAi knockdown or treatment with inhibitors together with flow cytometry-based methods was used for functional assessment of the identified candidate genes. Cellular metabolic activity was assessed with the XTT assay, and the redox capacity of cells was evaluated by measuring cellular glutathione (GSH) levels. Upregulation of ABCC2 and ABCG2 transporters was observed in CDDP-resistant p53(mut_c) HNSCC cells. Furthermore, p53(mut_c) cells exhibited a pronounced side population that could be suppressed by RNAi knockdown of ABCG2 as well as treatment with the ATP-binding-cassette transporter inhibitors imatinib, MK571 and tariquidar. Metabolic activity and cellular GSH levels were higher in CDDP-resistant p53(mut_c) cells, consistent with a higher capacity to fend off cytotoxic oxidative effects such as those caused by CDDP treatment. Finally, ABCC2/G2 inhibition of HNSCC cells with MK571 markedly enhanced CDDP sensitivity of HNSCC cells. The observations in this study point to a major role of p53(mut_c) in conferring a stem cell like phenotype to HNSCC cells that is associated with ABCC2/G2 overexpression, high GSH and metabolic activity levels as well as CDDP resistance.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 06/2014; 140(10). DOI:10.1007/s00432-014-1727-y · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) has attenuated the efficacy of anticancer drugs and the possibility of successful cancer chemotherapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating MDR in cancer cells by increasing efflux of drugs from cancer cells, hence reducing the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Interestingly, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as AST1306, lapatinib, linsitinib, masitinib, motesanib, nilotinib, telatinib and WHI-P154, have been found to have the capability to overcome anticancer drug resistance by inhibiting ABC transporters in recent years. This review will focus on some of the latest and clinical developments with ABC transporters, TKIs and anticancer drug resistance.09/2014; 6(4):1925-1952. DOI:10.3390/cancers6041925
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ABSTRACT: Drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) have been associated with chemotherapy resistance and are considered unfavorable prognostic factors for survival of cancer patients. Analyzing mRNA expression levels of a subset of drug transporters by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or protein expression by tissue microarray (TMA) in tumor samples of therapy naïve stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (qRT-PCR, n = 40; TMA, n = 61), this in situ study re-examined the significance of transporter expression for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to externally validate the respective findings (n = 317). In general, HNSCC tended to lower expression of drug transporters compared to normal epithelium. High ABCB1 mRNA tumor expression was associated with both favorable progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.0357) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.0535). Similar results were obtained for the mRNA of ABCC1 (MRP1, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1; PFS, p = 0.0183; OS, p = 0.038). In contrast, protein expression of ATP7b (copper transporter ATP7b), mRNA expression of ABCG2 (BCRP, breast cancer resistance protein), ABCC2 (MRP2), and SLC31A1 (hCTR1, human copper transporter 1) did not correlate with survival. Cluster analysis however revealed that simultaneous high expression of SLC31A1, ABCC2, and ABCG2 indicates poor survival of HNSCC patients. In conclusion, this study militates against the intuitive dogma where high expression of drug efflux transporters indicates poor survival, but demonstrates that expression of single drug transporters might indicate even improved survival. Prospectively, combined analysis of the 'transportome' should rather be performed as it likely unravels meaningful data on the impact of drug transporters on survival of patients with HNSCC.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108908. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108908 · 3.53 Impact Factor