Preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: reconstituted Tom40 forms a characteristic TOM pore.
ABSTRACT Tom40 is the central pore-forming component of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex). Different views exist about the secondary structure and electrophysiological characteristics of Tom40 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. We have directly compared expressed and renatured Tom40 from both species and find a high content of beta-structure in circular dichroism measurements in agreement with refined secondary structure predictions. The electrophysiological characterization of renatured Tom40 reveals the same characteristics as the purified TOM complex or mitochondrial outer membrane vesicles, with two exceptions. The total conductance of the TOM complex and outer membrane vesicles is twofold higher than the total conductance of renatured Tom40, consistent with the presence of two TOM pores. TOM complex and outer membrane vesicles possess a strongly enhanced sensitivity to a mitochondrial presequence compared to Tom40 alone, in agreement with the presence of several presequence binding sites in the TOM complex, suggesting a role of the non-channel Tom proteins in regulating channel activity.
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ABSTRACT: The preprotein translocase of the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM complex) facilitates the recognition, insertion, and translocation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial preproteins. We have purified the TOM complex from Neurospora crassa and analyzed its composition and functional properties. The TOM complex contains a cation-selective high-conductance channel. Upon reconstitution into liposomes, it mediates integration of proteins into and translocation across the lipid bilayer. TOM complex particles have a diameter of about 138 A, as revealed by electron microscopy and image analysis; they contain two or three centers of stain-filled openings, which we interpret as pores with an apparent diameter of about 20 A. We conclude that the structure reported here represents the protein-conducting channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane.Cell 07/1998; 93(6):1009-19. · 31.96 Impact Factor
Article: Protein import into mitochondria.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitochondria comprise approx. 1000-3000 different proteins, almost all of which must be imported from the cytosol into the organelle. So far, six complex molecular machines, protein translocases, were identified that mediate this process. The TIM23 complex is a major translocase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It uses two energy sources, namely membrane potential and ATP, to facilitate preprotein translocation across the inner membrane and insertion into the inner membrane. Recent research has led to the discovery of a number of new constituents of the TIM23 complex and to the unravelling of the mechanisms of preprotein translocation.Biochemical Society Transactions 12/2005; 33(Pt 5):1019-23. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Only a few mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the organellar genome. The majority of mitochondrial proteins are nuclear encoded and thus have to be transported into the organelle from the cytosol. Within the mitochondrion proteins have to be sorted into one of the four sub-compartments: the outer or inner membranes, the intermembrane space or the matrix. These processes are mediated by complex protein machineries within the different compartments that act alone or in concert with each other. The translocation machinery of the outer membrane is formed by a multi-subunit protein complex (TOM complex), that is built up by signal receptors and the general import pore (GIP). The inner membrane houses two multi-subunit protein complexes that each handles special subsets of mitochondrial proteins on their way to their final destination. According to their primary function these two complexes have been termed the pre-sequence translocase (or TIM23 complex) and the protein insertion complex (or TIM22 complex). The identification of components of these complexes and the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying their function are currently an exciting and fast developing field of molecular cell biology.Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2003; 326(3):639-57. · 3.91 Impact Factor