Preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: reconstituted Tom40 forms a characteristic TOM pore.
ABSTRACT Tom40 is the central pore-forming component of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex). Different views exist about the secondary structure and electrophysiological characteristics of Tom40 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. We have directly compared expressed and renatured Tom40 from both species and find a high content of beta-structure in circular dichroism measurements in agreement with refined secondary structure predictions. The electrophysiological characterization of renatured Tom40 reveals the same characteristics as the purified TOM complex or mitochondrial outer membrane vesicles, with two exceptions. The total conductance of the TOM complex and outer membrane vesicles is twofold higher than the total conductance of renatured Tom40, consistent with the presence of two TOM pores. TOM complex and outer membrane vesicles possess a strongly enhanced sensitivity to a mitochondrial presequence compared to Tom40 alone, in agreement with the presence of several presequence binding sites in the TOM complex, suggesting a role of the non-channel Tom proteins in regulating channel activity.
- SourceAvailable from: Angelika Harbauer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the β-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40.Molecular biology of the cell 03/2012; 23(9):1618-27. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are of bacterial ancestry and have to import most of their proteins from the cytosol. This process is mediated by Tom40, an essential protein that forms the protein-translocating pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Tom40 is conserved in virtually all eukaryotes, but its evolutionary origin is unclear because bacterial orthologues have not been identified so far. Recently, it was shown that the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma brucei lacks a conventional Tom40 and instead employs the archaic translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (ATOM), a protein that shows similarities to both eukaryotic Tom40 and bacterial protein translocases of the Omp85 family. Here we present electrophysiological single channel data showing that ATOM forms a hydrophilic pore of large conductance and high open probability. Moreover, ATOM channels exhibit a preference for the passage of cationic molecules consistent with the idea that it may translocate unfolded proteins targeted by positively charged N-terminal presequences. This is further supported by the fact that the addition of a presequence peptide induces transient pore closure. An in-depth comparison of these single channel properties with those of other protein translocases reveals that ATOM closely resembles bacterial-type protein export channels rather than eukaryotic Tom40. Our results support the idea that ATOM represents an evolutionary intermediate between a bacterial Omp85-like protein export machinery and the conventional Tom40 that is found in mitochondria of other eukaryotes.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2012; 287(37):31437-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are essential organelles for cellular integrity and functionality mainteinance and their imparement is implicated in the development of a wide range of diseases, including metabolic, cardiovascular, degenerative and hyperproliferative pathologies. The identification of different compounds able to interact with mitochondria for therapeutic purposes is currently becoming of primary importance. Indeed, it is well kown that foods, particularly those of vegetable origin, present several constituents with beneficial effects on health. This review summarizes and updates the most recent findings concerning the mechanisms through which different dietary compounds from plant foods affect mitochondria functionality in healthy and pathological in vitro and in vivo models, paying particular attention to the pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and apoptosis.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor