Clinical and economic consequences of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. The clinical and economic consequences of VAP are unclear, with a broad range of values reported in the literature
To perform a systematic review to determine the incidence of VAP and its attributable mortality rate, length of stay, and costs.
Computerized PUBMED and MEDLINE search supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles, limited to articles published after 1990.
English-language observational studies and randomized trials that provided data on the incidence of VAP were included. Matched cohort studies were included for calculation of attributable mortality rate and length of stay.
Data were extracted on patient population, diagnostic criteria for VAP, incidence, outcome, type of intensive care unit, and study design.
The cumulative incidence of VAP was calculated by combining the results of several studies using standard formulas for combining proportions, in which the weighted average and variance are calculated. Results from studies comparing intensive care unit and hospital mortality due to VAP, additional length of stay, and additional days of mechanical ventilation were pooled using a random effects model, with assessment of heterogeneity.
Our findings indicate a) between 10% and 20% of patients receiving >48 hrs of mechanical ventilation will develop VAP; b) critically ill patients who develop VAP appear to be twice as likely to die compared with similar patients without VAP (pooled odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.56); c) patients with VAP have significantly longer intensive care unit lengths of stay (mean = 6.10 days; 95% confidence interval, 5.32-6.87 days); and d) patients who develop VAP incur > or = USD $10,019 in additional hospital costs.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia occurs in a considerable proportion of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and is associated with substantial morbidity, a two-fold mortality rate, and excess cost. Given these findings, strategies that effectively prevent VAP are urgently needed.
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the effect of intubation for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on the cough reflex, an important airway protection mechanism. Eighty-six participants (70 males) underwent cough reflex texting (CRT) before intubation for CABG to establish baseline threshold for reflexive cough. Cough reflex texting was repeated within 2 hours of extubation and every morning and evening thereafter until the participant coughed at baseline level, withdrew, or was discharged from hospital. Sixty percent of participants had an absent cough reflex at CRT2 (x = 70 minutes). Participants varied in time to recovery of cough reflex. By CRT6, only 3 remaining participants persisted with an absent cough. Age, sex, or length of intubation had no significant impact on the time to recovery of cough reflex (P > .3). Absent cough reflex persists after CABG and may impact patients' ability to clear their airway in the event of aspiration. These results could contribute to better understanding postextubation dysphagia. More research is needed to determine if cough reflex is affected in the wider intensive care unit population postextubation and if CRT is a valid tool for detecting silent aspiration in this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Journal of critical care 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.03.013 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients may acquire ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by aspirating the condensate that originates in the ventilator circuit upon use of a conventional humidifier. The bacteria that colonize the patients themselves can proliferate in the condensate and then return to the airways and lungs when the patient aspirates this contaminated material. Therefore, the use of HME might contribute to preventing pneumonia and lowering the VAP incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the use of HME impacts the probability of VAP occurrence in critically ill patients. On the basis of the acronym "PICO" (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome), the question that guided this review was "Do critically ill patients under invasive mechanical ventilation present lower VAP incidence when they use HME as compared with HH?". Two of the authors of this review searched the databases PUBMED/Medline, The Cochrane Library, and Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, LILACS independently; they used the following keywords: "heat and moisture exchanger", AND "heated humidifier", AND "ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention". This review included papers in the English language published from January 1990 to December 2012. This review included ten studies. Comparison between the use of HME and HH did not reveal any differences in terms of VAP occurrence (OR = 0.998; 95% CI: 0.778-1.281). Together, the ten studies corresponded to a total sample of 1077 and 953 patients in the HME and HH groups, respectively; heterogeneity among the investigations was low (I(2) < 50%). Information about the outcome mortality was available in only eight of the ten studies. The use of HME and HH did not afford different results in terms of mortality (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.864-1.376). The total sample size was 884 and 762 patients, respectively. Heterogeneity among the studies was low (I(2) = 0.0%). Current meta-analysis was not sufficient to definitely exclude an associate between heat and moisture exchangers and VAP. Despite the methodological limitations found in selected clinical trials, the current meta-analysis suggests that HME does not decrease VAP incidence or mortality in critically ill patients.BMC Anesthesiology 01/2014; 14:115. DOI:10.1186/1471-2253-14-115 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resumen Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los costos directos de tratar a los pacientes mecánicamente ventilados que desarrollan un episodio de neumonía asociada al ventilador desde la perspectiva del hospital. Diseño: entre junio 1° de 2011 y junio 1° de 2012, 90 pacientes en ventilación mecánica por más de 48 horas en tres unidades de cuidados intensivos medicoquirúrgicas fueron evaluados para la presencia de neumonía asociada al ventilador. Se determinaron los costos de estancia en la unidad, antibióticos, estudios imagenológicos y micro-biológicos. Se determinó el costo total en ventilación mecánica con neumonía asociada al ventilador y sin neumonía. Se estableció el costo incremental de un episodio de neumonía. Los costos se tasaron en pesos colombianos del año 2011 y se convirtieron a dólares 2012. Resultados: 90 pacientes, 33 pacientes tuvieron neumonía asociada al ventilador. El costo promedio por paciente en ventilación mecánica fue 7950 dólares. El costo promedio por paciente en ventilación mecánica con neumonía asociada al ventilador fue 21 217 dólares. El costo incremental fue 14 328 dólares (p<0.001). La fuente de los costos fue 69% en estancia, 21% en el tratamiento antibiótico, 6% en estudios de laboratorio e imagenológicos, y 1% en estudios microbiológicos. En el análisis multivariado por regresión lineal múltiple la presencia de neumonía asociada al ventilador se asoció significativamente con los costos totales (p=0.0001) Conclusiones: la neumonía asociada al ventilador incrementó los costos totales. Los pacientes con neumonía asociada al ventilador tuvieron un costo adicional de 14 328 dólares. (Acta Med Colomb 2014: 39: 238-243) Palabras clave: cuidados intensivos, neumonía asociada al ventilador, costos en salud, pacientes críticamente enfermos, sepsis. Abstract Objective: the aim of the study was to determine the direct costs of treating mechanically ventilated patients who develop an episode of ventilator-associated pneumonia from the hospital perspective. Design: between June 1, 2011 and June 1, 2012, 90 patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours in 3 medical-surgical units of intensive care were evaluated for the presence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Costs of unit stay, antibiotics, imaging and microbiological studies were determined. The total cost of mechanical ventilation with ventilator-associated pneumonia and without pneumonia was determined. The incremental cost of an episode of pneumonia was established. Costs were calculated according to the value of Colombian pesos in 2011 and converted to dollars valued in 2012. Results: from a total of 90 patients, 33 had ventilator-associated pneumonia. The average cost per patient on mechanical ventilation was $ 7950. The average cost per patient on mechanical ventilation with ventilator-associated pneumonia was $ 21 217. The incremental cost was $ 14 328 (p <0.001). The source of the costs was 69% in hospital stay, 21% in antibiotic treatment, 6% in laboratory studies and imaging, and 1% in microbiological studies.Acta médica colombiana: AMC: organo de la Asociación Columbiana de Medicina Interna 07/2014; 39(3):238-243.