Effects of Job Development and Job Support on Competitive Employment of Persons With Severe Mental Illness

Babson College, Уэлсли, Massachusetts, United States
Psychiatric Services (Impact Factor: 2.41). 11/2005; 56(10):1237-44. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed


Few studies have sought to determine which specific supported employment services improve employment outcomes for people with pyschiatric disabilities. This study examined the effects of job development and job support among other services on acquisition and retention of competitive employment.
Data used in the analysis came from seven sites of the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program. Employment data were collected weekly for a period up to 24 months for 1,340 participants. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted.
Job development increased the probability of obtaining competitive employment. The effects of job development on job acquisition remained after the effects of other factors were controlled for. Job support was associated with more months in the first competitive job but not total hours worked. However, no evidence for the causal role of job support was found in analyses that tested the effects of job support after the job support was provided. The causal role of job support alone was also cast in doubt by the fact that a substantial overlap existed between individuals who received job support and vocational counseling.
Job development is a very effective service when the goal is job acquisition. Job support is associated with retention of a first competitive job, but its causal role is questionable.

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Available from: Paul B Gold, May 08, 2014
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    • "Users working in a social cooperative are usually considered having a competitive employment. As in other studies [26], criteria for competitive employment included: pay at minimum wage, or higher, employment in a mainstream integrated setting, the job not having been specifically set-up for mental health patients, and it being held independently (i.e., not controlled by a service agency). "
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    ABSTRACT: THE PRESENT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN A VOCATIONAL INTEGRATION SERVICE OF A NORTHERN ITALIAN TOWN WITH TWO MAJOR AIMS: to assess vocational integration programs undertaken from 1(st) January 2004 to 1(st) January 2007; and to identify job tenure-associated predictors. This is a retrospective study; we collected data such as gender, age, duration, type and outcome of the vocational integration program, and number of interventions performed by the vocational integration service. Self-report questionnaires were also used to assess the satisfaction of users, caregivers, practitioners, and of the company contacts involved in the study. The service has enrolled 84 users during the observation period. Out of these users, 64.3% of them still had their jobs after three years. Users, caregivers and company contacts expressed high levels of satisfaction for the support received by the vocational integration service. The company expressed less satisfaction for the collaboration received by the Departments of Mental Health (DMHs) that coached the users. The only variable associated to the outcome was the number of interventions that the users received before their placement on the job. Despite all the limits of this study, its results show that the chance of taking advantage of a supported job placement service has likely proven itself effective in helping people with mental disorders to obtain and maintain a competitive employment. Our results, however, also point to the necessity of implementing newer strategies meant to develop a greater integration among all services dealing with mentally ill people.
    Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 01/2013; 10(1):9-17. DOI:10.2174/1745017901410010009
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    • "A body of empirical evidence has emerged over the last two decades focusing on predictors or correlates of vocational recovery. This work has been spurred by two sets of findings: (a) from several long-term retrospective studies observing that about 70% of individuals deinstitutionalized from state psychiatric hospitals eventually returned to productive lives in the community, including employment (DeSisto, Harding, McCormick , Ashikaga, & Brooks, 1995; Harding, Brooks, Ashikaga, Strauss, & Breier, 1987) and (b) from research showing that employment functioning can be improved by vocational services and interventions (Bond, 2004; Cook et al., 2005; Crowther, Marshall, Bond, & Huxley, 2001; Drake, 1998; Leff et al., 2005). The predictors of vocational recovery most commonly explored to date include clinical, personal, program, and system-level variables, most of which are not easily changeable through social policy or intervention. "
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    ABSTRACT: Most people with serious mental illness (SMI) experience difficulty in fulfilling a vocational role, with many being unemployed or underemployed. Given the profound social and economic costs of this level of work impairment, researchers have investigated ways to enhance "vocational recovery," or the processes through which people with SMI regain their role as workers and reintegrate into the workforce. Using data collected from a larger qualitative study of 23 individuals who had progressed to an advanced stage of recovery from SMI, this study explored respondents' perspectives on employment and its relationship to their vocational recovery. Text passages describing employment were analyzed inductively by a diverse team of researchers. Seven themes were identified as being important in helping participants return to work or remain employed following the onset of a serious psychiatric disability: having the confidence to work, having the motivation to work, possessing work-related skills, assessing person-job fit, creating work opportunities, receiving social support, and having access to consumer-oriented programs and services. Implications of these findings on the development of interventions and policies to improve the vocational outcomes of people with SMI are discussed.
    American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 04/2010; 80(2):185-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01022.x · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Specific Vocational Services and Employment Outcomes (Leff et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes the published results of the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program (EIDP), a federally-funded, multi-site study examining the effectiveness of supported employment programs for 1273 unemployed individuals with psychiatric disabilities in the U.S. Findings confirm the effectiveness of supported employment across different models, program locations, and participant populations. The study's results are discussed in the context of public policies designed to encourage return to work for those with a severe mental illness.
    Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 02/2008; 31(4):291-5. DOI:10.2975/31.4.2008.291.295 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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