Shape optimization in unsteady blood flow: a numerical study of non-Newtonian effects.
ABSTRACT This paper presents a numerical study of non-Newtonian effects on the solution of shape optimization problems involving unsteady pulsatile blood flow. We consider an idealized two dimensional arterial graft geometry. Our computations are based on the Navier-Stokes equations generalized to non-Newtonian fluid, with the modified Cross model employed to account for the shear-thinning behavior of blood. Using a gradient-based optimization algorithm, we compare the optimal shapes obtained using both the Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constitutive equations. Depending on the shear rate prevalent in the domain, substantial differences in the flow as well as in the computed optimal shape are observed when the Newtonian constitutive equation is replaced by the modified Cross model. By varying a geometric parameter in our test case, we investigate the influence of the shear rate on the solution.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An idealized systemic-to-pulmonary shunt anatomy is parameterized and coupled to a closed loop, lumped parameter network (LPN) in a multidomain model of the Norwood surgical anatomy. The LPN approach is essential for obtaining information on global changes in cardiac output and oxygen delivery resulting from changes in local geometry and physiology. The LPN is fully coupled to a custom 3D finite element solver using a semi-implicit approach to model the heart and downstream circulation. This closed loop multidomain model is then integrated with a fully automated derivative-free optimization algorithm to obtain optimal shunt geometries with variable parameters of shunt diameter, anastomosis location, and angles. Three objective functions: (1) systemic; (2) coronary; and (3) combined systemic and coronary oxygen deliveries are maximized. Results show that a smaller shunt diameter with a distal shunt-brachiocephalic anastomosis is optimal for systemic oxygen delivery, whereas a more proximal anastomosis is optimal for coronary oxygen delivery and a shunt between these two anatomies is optimal for both systemic and coronary oxygen deliveries. Results are used to quantify the origin of blood flow going through the shunt and its relationship with shunt geometry. Results show that coronary artery flow is directly related to shunt position.Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 05/2012; 134(5):051002. · 1.90 Impact Factor
Conference Proceeding: Parametrical modeling and design optimization of blood plasma separation device with microchannel mechanism[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents an analysis of biofluid behavior in a T-shaped microchannel device and a design optimization for improved biofluid performance in terms of particle liquid separation. The biofluid is modeled with single phase shear rate non-Newtonian flow with blood property. The separation of red blood cell from plasma is evident based on biofluid distribution in the microchannels against various relevant effects and findings, including Zweifach-Fung bifurcation law, Fahraeus effect, Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect and cell-free phenomenon. The modeling with the initial device shows that this T-microchannel device can separate red blood cell from plasma but the separation efficiency among different bifurcations varies largely. In accordance with the imbalanced performance, a design optimization is conducted. This includes implementing a series of simulations to investigate the effect of the lengths of the main and branch channels to biofluid behavior and searching an improved design with optimal separation performance. It is found that changing relative lengths of branch channels is effective to both uniformity of flow rate ratio among bifurcations and reduction of difference of the flow velocities between the branch channels, whereas extending the length of the main channel from bifurcation region is only effective for uniformity of flow rate ratio.Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2009. ECTC 2009. 59th; 06/2009
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We study the shape differentiability of a cost function for the steady flow of an incompressible viscous fluid of power-law type. The fluid is confined to a bounded planar domain surrounding an obstacle. For smooth perturbations of the shape of the obstacle we express the shape gradient of the cost function which can be subsequently used to improve the initial design.01/2013: pages 427-436; , ISBN: 978-3-642-36061-9