HPRTSardinia: a new point mutation causing HPRT deficiency without Lesch-Nyhan disease.
ABSTRACT Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency always causing hyperuricemia presents various degrees of neurological manifestations, the most severe which is Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. The HPRT gene is situated in the region Xq26-q27.2 and consists of 9 exons. At least 300 different mutations at different sites in the HPRT coding region from exon 1 to exon 9 have been identified. A new mutation in the HPRT gene has been determined in one patient with complete deficiency of erythrocyte activity, with hyperuricemia and gout but without Lesch-Nyhan disease. Analysis of cultured fibroblasts revealed minimal residual HPRT activity mainly when guanine was the substrate. Genomic DNA sequencing demonstrated patient's mother heterozygosity for the mutation and no mutation in her brother. The mutation consists in a C-->T transversion at cDNA base 463 (C463T) in exon 6, resulting in proline to serine substitution at codon 155 (P155S). This mutation had not been reported previously and has been designated HPRT(Sardinia). The mutation identified in this patient allows some expression of functional enzyme in nucleated cells such as fibroblasts, indicating that such cell type may add further information to conventional blood analysis. A multicentre survey gathering patients with variant neurological forms could contribute to understand the pathophysiology of the neurobehavioral symptoms of HPRT deficiency.
Article: Diagnosis of megaloblastic anaemias.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are a large number of causes of megaloblastic anaemia. The most frequent are disorders resulting in vitamin B(12) or folate deficiency. The diagnostic process often consists first of establishing the presence of B(12) or folate deficiency and then of determining the cause of deficiency. The blood count, blood film, serum B(12) assay, and red cell and serum folate assays are the primary investigations. Other useful investigations include serum/plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), plasma total homocysteine (tHCYS) and serum holo-transcobalamin II assays. All currently used tests have limitations regarding specificity or sensitivity or both and the metabolite assays are not widely available. An understanding of these limitations is essential in formulating any diagnostic strategy. The wide use of serum B(12) and metabolite assays has resulted in the increasingly early diagnosis of B(12) deficiency, often in patients without B(12)-related symptoms (subclinical deficiency). Food cobalamin malabsorption is the most frequent cause of a low serum B(12). At least 25% of low serum B(12) levels are not associated with elevated metabolite levels and may not indicate B(12) deficiency. Some of these are caused by partial deficiency of transcobalamine I.Blood Reviews 12/2006; 20(6):299-318. · 5.36 Impact Factor