Role of G proteins and ERK activation in hemin-induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.
ABSTRACT Heterotrimeric G proteins which couple extracellular signals to intracellular effectors play a central role in cell growth and differentiation. The pluripotent erythroleukemic cell line K562 that acquires the capability to synthesize hemoglobin in response to a variety of agents can be used as a model system for erythroid differentiation. Using Western blot analysis and RT-PCR, we studied alterations in G protein expression accompanying hemin-induced differentiation of K562 cells. We demonstrated the presence of G(alpha s), G(alpha i2) and G(alpha q) and the absence of G(alpha i1), G(alpha o) and G(alpha 16) in K562 cells. We observed the short form of G(alpha s) to be expressed predominantly in these cells. Treatment of K562 cells with hemin resulted in an increase in the levels of G(alpha s) and G(alpha q). On the other hand, the level of G(alpha i2) was found to increase on the third day after induction with hemin, followed by a decrease to levels lower of those of uninduced cells. The mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 pathway is crucial in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Both Gi- and Gq-coupled receptors stimulate MAPK activation. We therefore examined the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during hemin-induced differentiation of K562 cells. Using anti-ERK1/2 antibodies, we observed that ERK2 was primarily phosphorylated in K562 cells. ERK2 phosphorylation increased gradually until 48 h and returned to basal values by 96 h following hemin treatment. Our results suggest that changes in G protein expression and ERK2 activity are involved in hemin-induced differentiation of K562 cells.
Conference Paper: Soon: self organising oscillator networks for use in clustering problems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The self-organising oscillator network (SOON) is a comparatively new clustering algorithm [H.F.M.B.H. Rhouma, February 2001], that has received relatively little attention so far. The SOON is distance based, meaning that clustering behaviour is different in a number of ways that can be beneficial. This paper examines the effect of adjusting the control parameters of the SOON with two widely different datasets which represent two different types of real-world data; the first is a communications signal dataset representing one modulation scheme under a variety of noise conditions. The second is a biological dataset taken from microarray experiments on the cell-cycle of yeast. The modulation scheme data is relatively easy to cluster at high SNR, however at lower SNR, the clustering problem becomes much more difficult as the separation between the cluster reduces. The paper demonstrates that the SOON is a viable tool to analyse these problems, and can add many useful insights to the data, that may not always be available using other clustering methodsMachine Learning for Signal Processing, 2004. Proceedings of the 2004 14th IEEE Signal Processing Society Workshop; 01/2004
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ABSTRACT: Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a major constituent of garlic. Previously, we found that DADS both inhibited proliferation in human gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and induced G2/M arrest. In this study, we investigated whether this differentiation effect was induced by DADS in human gastric cancer MGC803 cells, and whether it was related to an alteration in ERK activity. The results showed that the growth of MGC803 cells was inhibited by DADS. Cells treated with DADS displayed a lower nucleocytoplasmic ratio and tended to form gland and intercellular conjunction structures. The ConA-mediated cell agglutination ratio and cells' ALP specific activity decreased. In MGC803 cells, dye transfer was limited to a few cells neighbouring the dye-injected cell and to a depth of 1-2 layers beneath the scrape site. However, after treatment with DADS, the LY (Lucifer Yellow) was transferred to several cells immediately neighbouring the microinjected cell and to a depth of 2-4 cell layers from the scrape site. This indicated that DADS induced differentiation in MGC803 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that although DADS did not influence the quantity of ERK1/2 protein expressed, it did decrease its phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with the controls. At 30 mg x L(-1), DADS inhibited the activation of ERK1/2 in 15-30 min. These results suggested that the DADS-induced differentiation of MGC803 cells involved an alteration of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 02/2006; 11(3):408-23. DOI:10.2478/s11658-006-0034-2 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The chimeric bcr-abl gene encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that leads to abnormal transduction of growth and survival signals leading to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). According to our previous observations, in vitro differentiation of several erythroid cell lines is accompanied by the downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities. In this work we investigated whether ERKs have a decisive role in either the erythroid differentiation process or apoptosis of bcr-abl+ K562 cells by means of direct (MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126) and indirect (reduced Bcr-Abl function) inhibition of their activities. We found that both Gleevec and UO126 induced hemoglobin expression. Gleevec treatment reduced the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl, ERK and STAT-5 for up to 24 h, decreased Bcl-XL levels, and induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, UO126 treatment resulted in only a transient decrease of ERK activity and did not induce cell death. For studying the effect of reduced Bcr-Abl function on erythroid differentiation at the level of the bcr-abl transcript, we applied the siRNA approach. Stable degradation of bcr-abl mRNA was achieved by using a retroviral vector with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter. Despite a high (>90%) transduction efficiency we detected only a transient decrease in Bcr-Abl protein and in phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. This transient change in Bcr-Abl signaling was sufficient to induce hemoglobin expression without significant cell death. These results suggest that by transiently reducing Bcr-Abl function it is possible to overcome the differentiation blockade without evoking apoptosis in CML cells and that reduced ERK activity may have a crucial role in this process.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 1090:344-54. DOI:10.1196/annals.1378.038 · 4.31 Impact Factor