Heterotrimeric G proteins which couple extracellular signals to intracellular effectors play a central role in cell growth and differentiation. The pluripotent erythroleukemic cell line K562 that acquires the capability to synthesize hemoglobin in response to a variety of agents can be used as a model system for erythroid differentiation. Using Western blot analysis and RT-PCR, we studied alterations in G protein expression accompanying hemin-induced differentiation of K562 cells. We demonstrated the presence of G(alpha s), G(alpha i2) and G(alpha q) and the absence of G(alpha i1), G(alpha o) and G(alpha 16) in K562 cells. We observed the short form of G(alpha s) to be expressed predominantly in these cells. Treatment of K562 cells with hemin resulted in an increase in the levels of G(alpha s) and G(alpha q). On the other hand, the level of G(alpha i2) was found to increase on the third day after induction with hemin, followed by a decrease to levels lower of those of uninduced cells. The mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 pathway is crucial in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Both Gi- and Gq-coupled receptors stimulate MAPK activation. We therefore examined the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during hemin-induced differentiation of K562 cells. Using anti-ERK1/2 antibodies, we observed that ERK2 was primarily phosphorylated in K562 cells. ERK2 phosphorylation increased gradually until 48 h and returned to basal values by 96 h following hemin treatment. Our results suggest that changes in G protein expression and ERK2 activity are involved in hemin-induced differentiation of K562 cells.
"As previously reported, G protein expression and MAPKs are involved in hemin-induced erythroid differentiation, another γ-globin stimulator . Hydroxycarbamide increased phosphorylation of p38 in erythroid differentiation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. G proteins are also implicated in erythroid differentiation, and some of them are expressed principally in hematopoietic cells. GPCRs-linked NO/cGMP and p38 MAPK signaling pathways already demonstrated potency for globin gene stimulation. By analyzing erythroid progenitors, derived from hematopoietic cells through in vitro ontogeny, our study intends to determine early markers and signaling pathways of globin gene regulation and their relation to GPCR expression.
Human hematopoietic CD34+ progenitors are isolated from fetal liver (FL), cord blood (CB), adult bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) and G-CSF stimulated mobilized PB (mPB), and then differentiated in vitro into erythroid progenitors. We find that growth capacity is most abundant in FL- and CB-derived erythroid cells. The erythroid progenitor cells are sorted as 100% CD71+, but we did not find statistical significance in the variations of CD34, CD36 and GlyA antigens and that confirms similarity in maturation of studied ontogenic periods. During ontogeny, beta-globin gene expression reaches maximum levels in cells of adult blood origin (176 fmol/μg), while gamma-globin gene expression is consistently up-regulated in CB-derived cells (60 fmol/μg). During gamma-globin induction by hydroxycarbamide, we identify stimulated GPCRs (PTGDR, PTGER1) and GPCRs-coupled genes known to be activated via the cAMP/PKA (ADIPOQ), MAPK pathway (JUN) and NO/cGMP (PRPF18) signaling pathways. During ontogeny, GPR45 and ARRDC1 genes have the most prominent expression in FL-derived erythroid progenitor cells, GNL3 and GRP65 genes in CB-derived cells (high gamma-globin gene expression), GPR110 and GNG10 in BM-derived cells, GPR89C and GPR172A in PB-derived cells, and GPR44 and GNAQ genes in mPB-derived cells (high beta-globin gene expression).
These results demonstrate the concomitant activity of GPCR-coupled genes and related signaling pathways during erythropoietic stimulation of globin genes. In accordance with previous reports, the stimulation of GPCRs supports the postulated connection between cAMP/PKA and NO/cGMP pathways in activation of γ-globin expression, via JUN and p38 MAPK signaling.
"In order to stimulate hemoglobinization, K562 cells were treated with hemin, which we added to cell cultures alone or in combination with adrenergic drugs. In accordance to data in the literature   , hemin induces the appearance of benzidine positive K562 cells during 72 h cultivation (image in Fig. 5D). 20 μM hemin does not significantly interfere with the growth behavior of K562 cells, but induces a slight increase of benzidine positive cells (Supplementary Information, Figs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preliminary data showed that α1-adrenergic antagonists induce apoptosis and a switch towards megakaryocytic differentiation in human erythroleukemia cells. To test the hypothesis whether survival and differentiation of erythroleukemia cells are under control of α1-adrenergic signalling, we examined α1-adrenoceptor expression of erythroleukemia cells and compared the in vitro effects of α-adrenergic antagonists with those of agonists. We discovered that α1-adrenergic agonists suppress both erythroid differentiation and growth of erythroleukemia cells concomitant with lipofuscin accumulation, autophagy and necrotic cell death. α1-adrenergic agonists also inhibit the in vitro growth of physiologic hematopoietic progenitors obtained from umbilical cord blood with high selectivity for the erythroid lineage. Interestingly, the observed effects could not be related to α1-adrenoceptors, even though agonists and antagonists displayed opposing effects regarding cellular growth and differentiation of erythroleukemia cells. Our data suggest that the effects of α1-adrenergic drugs are related to a non-adrenoceptor binding site, controlling the fate of erythroid progenitor cells towards differentiation and cell death. Since the observed effects are not mediated through adrenoceptors, the physiologic relevance of our data remains unclear, so far. Nevertheless, the identification of the still unknown binding site(s) might disclose new insights into regulation of erythroid differentiation and cell death.
Experimental Cell Research 10/2011; 317(16):2239-51. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.07.005 · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The self-organising oscillator network (SOON) is a comparatively new clustering algorithm [H.F.M.B.H. Rhouma, February 2001], that has received relatively little attention so far. The SOON is distance based, meaning that clustering behaviour is different in a number of ways that can be beneficial. This paper examines the effect of adjusting the control parameters of the SOON with two widely different datasets which represent two different types of real-world data; the first is a communications signal dataset representing one modulation scheme under a variety of noise conditions. The second is a biological dataset taken from microarray experiments on the cell-cycle of yeast. The modulation scheme data is relatively easy to cluster at high SNR, however at lower SNR, the clustering problem becomes much more difficult as the separation between the cluster reduces. The paper demonstrates that the SOON is a viable tool to analyse these problems, and can add many useful insights to the data, that may not always be available using other clustering methods
Machine Learning for Signal Processing, 2004. Proceedings of the 2004 14th IEEE Signal Processing Society Workshop; 01/2004
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