The use of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer patients undergoing skin sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous reconstruction
ABSTRACT Intraoperative frozen section examination of the sentinel node in breast cancer patients is associated with a high number of incorrect negative results with the sentinel node becoming positive in the permanent examination and necessitating a secondary axillary lymph node dissection. A reoperation of the axilla following skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous tissue reconstruction may compromise the vascular pedicle of the flap and should be avoided.
Eighty breast cancer patients underwent skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate autologous reconstruction and sentinel node biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection irrespective of the result of the frozen section of the sentinel node. The goal of the study was to identify a subgroup of patients with incorrect negative sentinel node(s) in the frozen section who may forego a secondary axillary lymph node dissection due to a low risk of positive nonsentinel nodes.
Frozen section examination of the sentinel node was negative in 58 patients and positive in 22 patients. Permanent histologic examination revealed tumor in 13 of 58 (22.4 percent) sentinel node(s) found negative in the frozen section. None of these 13 patients showed positive nodes in the axillary specimen, whereas nine of 22 patients with their metastases in the sentinel node found through intraoperative frozen section examination had additional positive nonsentinel node(s) (p = 0.001).
Patients with incorrect negative sentinel node(s) found in the frozen section examination had a significantly decreased risk for additional positive nonsentinel node(s) compared with patients with sentinel node metastases found in the frozen section. However, to avoid a secondary axillary lymph node dissection, the authors suggest performing sentinel node biopsy before mastectomy under local anesthesia to have the permanent result of the sentinel node available before a planned reconstruction.
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ABSTRACT: One of the most challenging procedures in breast surgery is the skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM). Various techniques and incisions have evolved that characterize this procedure; however, what is common in all of them is the smaller the incision, the more difficult it is to develop the skin flaps.Annals of Surgical Oncology 09/2014; 22(2). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-4028-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The side effects of mastectomy can be significant. Breast reconstruction may alleviate some distress; however, there are currently no provincial recommendations regarding the integration of reconstruction with breast cancer therapy. The purpose of the present article is to provide evidence-based strategies for the management of patients who are candidates for reconstruction. A systematic review of meta-analyses, guidelines, clinical trials and comparative studies published between 1980 and 2013 was conducted using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. Reference lists of publications were manually searched for additional literature. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse and SAGE directory, as well as guideline developers' websites, were also searched. Recommendations were developed based on the available evidence. Reconstruction consultation should be made available for patients undergoing mastectomy. Tumour characteristics, cancer therapy, patient comorbidities, body habitus and smoking history may affect reconstruction outcomes. Although immediate reconstruction should be considered whenever possible, delayed reconstruction is acceptable when immediate is not available or appropriate. The integration of reconstruction and postmastectomy radiotherapy should be addressed in a multidisciplinary setting. The decision as to which type of procedure to perform (autologous or alloplastic with or without acellular dermal matrices) should be left to the discretion of the surgeons and the patient after providing counselling. Skin-sparing mastectomy is safe and appropriate. Nipple-sparing is generally not recommended for patients with malignancy, but could be considered for carefully selected patients. Immediate reconstruction requires resources to coordinate operating room time between the general and plastic surgeons, to provide supplies including acellular dermal matrices, and to develop the infrastructure needed to facilitate multidisciplinary discussions.The Canadian journal of plastic surgery, Journal canadien de chirurgie plastique 06/2014; 22(2):103-11. · 0.27 Impact Factor