The Use of Sentinel Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Skin Sparing Mastectomy and Immediate Autologous Reconstruction
ABSTRACT Intraoperative frozen section examination of the sentinel node in breast cancer patients is associated with a high number of incorrect negative results with the sentinel node becoming positive in the permanent examination and necessitating a secondary axillary lymph node dissection. A reoperation of the axilla following skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous tissue reconstruction may compromise the vascular pedicle of the flap and should be avoided.
Eighty breast cancer patients underwent skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate autologous reconstruction and sentinel node biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection irrespective of the result of the frozen section of the sentinel node. The goal of the study was to identify a subgroup of patients with incorrect negative sentinel node(s) in the frozen section who may forego a secondary axillary lymph node dissection due to a low risk of positive nonsentinel nodes.
Frozen section examination of the sentinel node was negative in 58 patients and positive in 22 patients. Permanent histologic examination revealed tumor in 13 of 58 (22.4 percent) sentinel node(s) found negative in the frozen section. None of these 13 patients showed positive nodes in the axillary specimen, whereas nine of 22 patients with their metastases in the sentinel node found through intraoperative frozen section examination had additional positive nonsentinel node(s) (p = 0.001).
Patients with incorrect negative sentinel node(s) found in the frozen section examination had a significantly decreased risk for additional positive nonsentinel node(s) compared with patients with sentinel node metastases found in the frozen section. However, to avoid a secondary axillary lymph node dissection, the authors suggest performing sentinel node biopsy before mastectomy under local anesthesia to have the permanent result of the sentinel node available before a planned reconstruction.
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ABSTRACT: To review the oncological safety and aesthetic value of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) for invasive breast cancer (IBC) and ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS). Controversies including the impact of radiotherapy (RT) on immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), preservation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) and the role of endoscopic mastectomy are also considered. Literature review facilitated by Medline and PubMed databases. SSM is an oncologically safe technique in selected cases, including IBC <5 cm, multi-centric tumours, DCIS and prophylactic risk-reduction surgery. The high risk of local recurrence (LR) excludes inflammatory breast cancers and tumours with extensive involvement of the skin. SSM can facilitate IBR and is associated with an excellent aesthetic result. Prior breast irradiation or the need for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMR) do not preclude SSM, however the cosmetic outcome may be affected. Nipple/areola preservation is possible for remote tumours, employing a frozen section protocol for the retro-areolar tissue. There is limited data available for endoscopic mastectomy and superiority over conventional SSM has not been established. In appropriately selected cases SSM is oncologically adequate. There are several patient centred advantages over conventional mastectomy, including aesthetic outcome and the avoidance of multiple staged procedures. Despite widespread uptake into surgical practice, validation of these techniques from randomised controlled trials is lacking.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2007; 111(3):391-403. DOI:10.1007/s10549-007-9801-7 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Options for immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy are directly affected by nodal status. Historically, axillary dissection has been performed simultaneously with mastectomy. The advent of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) drastically changed the trends in breast cancer surgery. SLNB is often performed at the time of mastectomy and may negate the need for a formal axillary dissection. The algorithm presented here outlines an approach where SLNB is performed as a separate outpatient operation several days prior to mastectomy when immediate reconstruction is planned. While this approach requires a separate procedure, SLNB can be performed with minimal morbidity with monitored anesthesia care and local anesthesia. The significance of this algorithm is that it allows time for complete pathologic evaluation prior to definitive surgery, eliminating the dependency on frozen section diagnosis. This method also decreases the possibility of irradiating a fresh autologous flap if radiation therapy is deemed necessary after further pathology review of the sentinel node specimen. We endorse SLNB as a separate outpatient procedure prior to definitive surgery with reconstruction, particularly latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. This method involves a close team approach between the breast and plastic surgeons.Annals of Plastic Surgery 11/2007; 59(4):359-63. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e3180326fb9 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: False negative cases in the intraoperative assessment of sentinel node (SN) metastases in breast cancer prompt for a secondary axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Such ALND is technically demanding and prone to complications in patients with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) if there is a microvascular anastomosis or the thoracodorsal pedicle of a latissimus dorsi flap in the axilla. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of the intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in breast cancer patients undergoing IBR. Sixty-two consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing SNB with the intraoperative diagnosis of SN metastases simultaneously with mastectomy and IBR between 2004 and 2006 were included in this study. Results of the SNB and especially the false negative cases in the intraoperative diagnosis were evaluated. Eleven patients had tumor positive SN. Nine of these cases were detected intraoperatively. The two false negative cases in the intraoperative diagnosis constituted of isolated tumor cells only. Our present study suggests that SNB with intraoperative diagnosis of SN metastases is feasible in patients undergoing IBR if the risk of nodal metastasis is low and the sensitivity of intraoperative SNB diagnosis is high.European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 01/2008; 33(10):1146-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2007.03.009 · 2.89 Impact Factor