C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, is predictive of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. However, the extent to which high CRP levels (>3 mg/L) may be attributable to high cholesterol levels and other CHD risk factors has not been well defined.
The prevalence of high CRP levels in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 15 341) was studied using CHD risk-factor cut points designated as abnormal (total cholesterol values, >or=240 mg/dL [>or=6.22 mmol/L]; fasting blood glucose levels, >or=126 mg/dL [>or=6.99 mmol/L]; blood pressure, >or=140/90 mm Hg; body mass index [BMI], >or=30 kg/m(2); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values, <40 mg/dL [<1.04 mmol/L] for men and <50 mg/dL [<1.30 mmol/L] for women; triglyceride levels, >or=200 mg/dL [>or=2.26 mmol/L]; current smoking status) or borderline (total cholesterol values, 200-239 mg/dL [5.18-6.19 mmol/L]; fasting blood glucose levels, 100-125 mg/dL [5.55-6.94 mmol/L]; blood pressure, 120-139/80-89 mm Hg; BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), and triglyceride values 150-199 mg/dL [1.70-2.25 mmol/L], former smoking status), or normal.
Weighted multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high CRP level was significantly more common with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 3.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28-4.35]), overweight (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.62-2.18), and diabetes (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.54-2.38) and that high CRP level was rare in the absence of any borderline or abnormal CHD risk factor in men (4.4%) and women (10.3%). Overall, the risk of elevated CRP level attributable to the presence of any abnormal or borderline CHD risk factor was 78% in men and 67% women.
These data suggest that elevated CRP levels in the general population are in large measure attributable to traditional CHD risk factors. Moreover, CRP level elevation is rare in the absence of borderline or abnormal risk factors. As such, CRP measurements may have limited clinical utility as a screening tool beyond other known CHD risk factors.
"CRP is an acute-phase reactant shown to be a sensitive, non-specific marker of systemic inflammation  and thought to be both maker and marker of the chronic arterial inflammation underlying atherosclerosis  . CRP is associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors including obesity  ; meta-analysis confirms it independently predicts adverse cardiovascular events. . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Leptin and C-reactive protein (CRP) have each been linked to adverse cardiovascular events, and prior cross-sectional research suggests that increased levels of both biomarkers pose an even greater risk. The effect of increased levels of both leptin and CRP on mortality has not, however, been previously assessed.
We used data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to estimate the mortality effect of high leptin and high CRP levels. Outcomes were compared with the use of inverse-probability-weighting adjustment. Among 6259 participants included in the analysis, 766 were in their sex-specific, population-weighted highest quartiles of both leptin and CRP. Median follow-up time was 14.3 years.
There was no significant difference in adjusted all-cause mortality between the groups (risk ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.54). Similar results were noted with the use of several different analytic methods and in many subgroups, though high leptin and CRP levels may increase all-cause mortality in males (hazard ratio, 1.80, 95% CI, 1.32-2.46; P for interaction, 0.011). A significant difference in cardiovascular mortality was also noted (risk ratio, 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08-2.18), though that finding was not confirmed in all sensitivity analyses..
In this observational study, no significant difference in overall all-cause mortality rates in those with high leptin and high CRP levels was found, though high leptin and CRP levels appear associated with increased mortality in males. High leptin and CRP levels also likely increase risk for cardiovascular death..
"CRP is a sensitive marker of inflammation.2 Although it is unknown whether CRP is involved in coronary heart disease patho-genesis,34 elevated serum CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and obesity.56 Eversince McCully was the first to draw attention to the relationship between homocysteine and atherosclerosis in 1967, plasma homocysteine levels were widely accepted as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular disease.78 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid levels and cardiovascular risk have been debated for decades. Resistin is a newly discovered adipocyte derived cytokine. Smoking besides its effect on atherosclerosis, is shown to alter adipocytokine levels. Bearing in mind, these complex relationship of resistin with smoking, C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid, we planned to investigate the association of resistin and these cardiovascular risk factors in smoker and non-smoker subjects.
We conducted a cross-sectional randomized study including 52 smoking and 33 non-smoking men. After making comparisons of C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid and resistin between the two groups, we classified the subjects according to their insulin resistance and body mass and made again the comparisons..
Resistin levels were higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.001) and also in insulin resistant than in non-insulin resistant smokers (p<0.05). Resistin levels were indifferent in non-smokers as insulin resistance was concerned and in smoker or non-smokers as body mass index was concerned. As all subjects were grouped based on homeostasis model assesment index and body mass index, neither C-reactive protein nor homocysteine and uric acid levels differred.
We found that smoking may have influence on resistin levels and in smokers, insulin resistance is related to resistin levels, but in smoker and non-smokers body mass may not have any association with resistin. Resistin also may not have a role in C-reactive protein, homocysteine and uric acid levels both in smokers and non-smokers.
Journal of research in medical sciences 10/2011; 16(10):1273-9. · 0.65 Impact Factor
"High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, has been extensively studied for cardiovascular risk prediction. CRP is associated with the presence of conventional risk factors, as well as obesity and the metabolic syndrome (Miller et al. 2005). Furthermore, there are abundant data to suggest that elevated CRP predicts cardiovascular disease above and beyond conventional risk factors, as summarized in a recent U.S. Preventive Services Task Force meta-analysis (Buckley et al. 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, the study of biomarkers to identify at-risk individuals is an expanding field. Several developments have fueled this trend, including improved understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying atherosclerosis, advances in imaging technology to enable the quantification of subclinical disease burden, and the identification of new genetic susceptibility variants for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the advent of high-throughput platforms for molecular profiling has increased the pace of biomarker discovery. The rising interest in biomarkers has been balanced by the recognition that standardized and rigorous statistical approaches are needed to evaluate the clinical utility of candidate risk markers. This article reviews the issues surrounding the evaluation of biomarkers, evidence from studies of existing biomarkers, and recent applications of biomarker discovery platforms.
Trends in cardiovascular medicine 05/2011; 21(4):105-12. DOI:10.1016/j.tcm.2012.03.007 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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