Article

Hypothalamic neuropeptide expression following chronic food restriction in sedentary and wheel-running rats.

Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology and Anatomy, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.58). 11/2005; 35(2):381-90. DOI: 10.1677/jme.1.01808
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT When rats are given access to a running-wheel in combination with food restriction, they will become hyperactive and decrease their food intake, a paradoxical phenomenon known as activity-based anorexia (ABA). Little is known about the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance during the development of ABA. Therefore, rats were killed during the development of ABA, before they entered a state of severe starvation. Neuropeptide mRNA expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR on punches of separate hypothalamic nuclei. As is expected in a state of negative energy balance, expression levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were increased 5-fold in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of food-restricted running ABA rats vs 2-fold in sedentary food-restricted controls. The co-regulated expression of AgRP and NPY strongly correlated with relative body weight and white adipose tissue mass. Arcuate expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was reduced 2-fold in the ABA group. In second-order neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA expression was upregulated 2-fold in food-restricted running rats, but not in food-restricted sedentary controls. Prepro-orexin, CART and corticotropin-releasing hormone expression levels in the LHA and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were unchanged in both food-restricted groups. From this study it was concluded that during the development of ABA, neuropeptides in first-order neurons in the ARC and MCH in the LHA are regulated in an adequate response to negative energy balance, whereas expression levels of the other studied neuropeptides in secondary neurons of the LHA and PVN are unchanged and are probably regulated by factors other than energy status alone.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
62 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement can promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN.
    Physiology & Behavior 06/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recognized as a "disease modifier", physical activity (PA) is increasingly viewed as a more holistic, cost-saving method for prevention, treatment and management of human disease conditions. The traditional view that PA engages the monoaminergic and endorphinergic systems has been challenged by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), composed of endogenous lipids, their target receptors, and metabolic enzymes. Indeed, direct and indirect evidence suggests that the ECS might mediate some of the PA-triggered effects throughout the body. Moreover, it is now emerging that PA itself is able to modulate ECS in different ways. Against this background, in the present review we shall discuss evidence of the cross-talk between PA and the ECS, ranging from brain to peripheral districts and highlighting how ECS must be tightly regulated during PA, in order to maintain its beneficial effects on cognition, mood, and nociception, while avoiding impaired energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 02/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physiological and behavioral adjustments of small mammals are important strategies in response to variations in food availability. Although numerous of studies have been carried out in rodents, behavioral patterns in response to food deprivation and re-feeding (FD-RF) are still inconsistent. Here we examined effects of a 24 h FD followed by RF on general activity, serum leptin concentrations and gene expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) with/without leptin supplements. The time spent on activity was increased by 2.5 fold in FD hamsters compared with controls fed ad libitum (P < 0.01). Body mass, fat mass as well as serum leptin concentrations were significantly decreased in FD hamsters in comparison with ad libitum controls, which were in parallel with hyperactivity. During re-feeding, leptin concentrations increased rapidly to pre-deprivation levels by 12 hours, but locomotor activity decreased gradually and did not return to pre-deprivation levels until 5 days after re-feeding. Leptin administration to FD hamsters significantly attenuated the increased activity. Gene expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) was upregulated in FD hamsters and fell down to control levels when hamsters were re-fed ad libutm, similar to that observed in activity behavior. Leptin supplement induced increases in serum leptin concentrations (184.1%, P < 0.05) in FD hamsters and simultaneously attenuated the increase in activity (45.8%, P < 0.05) and NPY gene expression (35%, P < 0.05). This may allow us to draw a more generalized conclusion that decreased leptin concentrations function as a starvation signal in animals under food shortage; to induce an increase in activity levels, leading animals to forage and/or migrate, and consequently increasing the chance of survival. Decreased concentrations of serum leptin in animals subjected to food shortage may induce an upregulation of gene expression of hypothalamus NPY, consequently driving a significant increase in foraging behavior.
    Hormones and Behavior 01/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
108 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014