Indoor environment and respiratory symptoms in children living in the Dutch-German borderland.
ABSTRACT To investigate the relation between indoor environmental risk factors and respiratory symptoms in 7-8-year-old children living in the Dutch-German borderland.
A nested case-control study was conducted among children participating in a large longitudinal study on respiratory health. Parents of all 781 children with respiratory complaints and an equal number of randomly selected controls were asked to complete a questionnaire, including questions on indoor environment.
The parents of 1191 children (76.2%) participated. Past exposure to environmental (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.14-6.67) as well as in utero exposure (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.15-4.53) to tobacco smoke, use of an unvented geyser for water heating (OR = 3.01, 95% CI 1.21-7.56), long-term exposure to dampness (OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.10-8.28) or pets (OR = 2.18, 95% CI 1.39-3.42) increased the risk of asthmatic symptoms in 7-8-year-old children. A middle or low socio-economic status also increased the risk of asthmatic symptoms. An inverse association with asthmatic symptoms was seen for wall-to-wall carpeting (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.33-0.95) and insulation measures (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.83). Except for the presence of an unvented geyser, these environmental risk factors also presented a risk for coughing symptoms in children.
This study showed an increased risk of respiratory symptoms in children exposed to several indoor environmental risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: Exposure to various factors from the indoor environment on respiratory health of 470 Dutch primary school children was studied. We investigated which of the factors, such as home dampness, passive smoking, unvented kitchen geysers, or pets, affected children's respiratory health the most, and whether airway sensitivity to these indoors exposures differed between boys and girls. Information on respiratory morbidity and characteristics of the housing was obtained by a written questionnaire, completed by the parents of the children. Lung function of the children was measured at school, by forced oscillation technique (FOT) and spirometry. In boys, all investigated lung function parameters were significantly affected by exposure to passive smoking during the child's entire life. Although mostly nonsignificant, all of the reported asthma-like symptoms were related especially to maternal smoking, with a trend of a dose-response relationship. Furthermore, damp stains (P < 0.05) and mold growth (ns) were associated with chronic cough and with small but significant impairments in part of the lung function parameters. No consistent patterns were observed with unvented kitchen geysers and pets. Although passive smoking (cumulative dose) in girls was also associated with lung function impairments, the effects were smaller than those in boys and not all significant. Associations between the asthma-like symptoms and the dose of maternal and paternal smoking also were less consistent. Furthermore, no associations were found with the dampness indicators and with pets, but unvented kitchen geysers were significantly related to impairments in some of the impedance indices. This study shows detrimental effects of several indoor factors on the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function in children, which are most pronounced for passive smoking, and somewhat less pronounced for dampness and the presence of unvented kitchen geysers. Airway sensitivity to these exposures appeared to be higher in boys than in girls.Environmental Research 02/1995; 68(1):11-23. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, use of a gas stove, and having a dog or cat) on five measures of spirometric lung function among 8- to 16-year-old subjects, as measured cross-sectionally in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994). In regression models, independent variables included asthma status, household environmental factors, age, and anthropometric measurements. Regression analyses were weighted by the NHANES III examination sample weighting factor, and results were adjusted for clustering in the sampling design. There were distinct sex differences in the results. In girls, lung function was lowest among active asthmatics taking prescription respiratory medicine, whereas lung function in other active and inactive asthmatics did not differ greatly from that in nonasthmatics. In boys, however, all groups of asthmatics had substantially lower lung function than nonasthmatics. Differences in lung function between active asthmatics and nonasthmatics were stable with increasing age. However, the lung function of inactive asthmatic girls and boys returned to and diverged from nonasthmatics' levels, respectively. In asthmatic girls, passive smoking was associated with reduced lung function; having a dog or cat was associated with increased lung function; and gas stove use was associated with reduced lung function among subjects not taking prescription respiratory medicine.American Journal of Epidemiology 08/2003; 158(2):175-89. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Findings by other authors indicate that exposure to chemical emissions from indoor paint is related to asthma symptoms in adults. In their first years of life children are receptive to obstructive airway diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of redecoration of the apartment on airway symptoms in infants during the first two years of life. The Leipzig Allergy Risk Children Study (LARS) is a birth cohort study with the following inclusion criteria: double positive family atopy anamnesis, cord blood IgE > 0.9 kU/l, or low birth weight between 1500-2500 g. Within the context of LARS, 186 parents of risk children completed a questionnaire on the respiratory symptoms of their children and the redecoration of their apartment at the end of the first and second year of life. A total 22% of the children suffered from obstructive bronchitis once or more during their first year, and 11% experienced this condition during their second year of life. Redecoration of the apartment had a significant influence on the appearance of obstructive bronchitis in the first (OR 4.1 95% CI 1.4-11.9) and in the second year of life (OR 4.2 95% CI 1.4-12.9). (The OR are adjusted for cord blood-IgE > 0.9 kU/l, birth weight < or = 2500 g, male sex and double positive parental atopy anamnesis, dampness, smoking or pet in the apartment). Simultaneous contamination from redecoration activities and additional exposures such as smoking, a pet or dampness in the apartment increased the risk for obstructive bronchitis in the first year (OR 9.1; 95% CI 2.3-34.8) as well as in the second year (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.6-15.6). Our data suggest that redecoration of the apartment is associated with the development of acute inflammations, but not with a chronic influence on the airways in atopy risk infants. At an exposure to more than one environmental factor, pronounced effects were seen.International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 06/2003; 206(3):173-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor