Type I antifreeze proteins expressed in snailfish skin are identical to their plasma counterparts.
ABSTRACT Type I antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are usually small, Ala-rich alpha-helical polypeptides found in right-eyed flounders and certain species of sculpin. These proteins are divided into two distinct subclasses, liver type and skin type, which are encoded by separate gene families. Blood plasma from Atlantic (Liparis atlanticus) and dusky (Liparis gibbus) snailfish contain type I AFPs that are significantly larger than all previously described type I AFPs. In this study, full-length cDNA clones that encode snailfish type I AFPs expressed in skin tissues were generated using a combination of library screening and PCR-based methods. The skin clones, which lack both signal and pro-sequences, produce proteins that are identical to circulating plasma AFPs. Although all fish examined consistently express antifreeze mRNA in skin tissue, there is extreme individual variation in liver expression - an unusual phenomenon that has never been reported previously. Furthermore, genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that snailfish AFPs are products of multigene families that consist of up to 10 gene copies per genome. The 113-residue snailfish AFPs do not contain any obvious amino acid repeats or continuous hydrophobic face which typify the structure of most other type I AFPs. These structural differences might have implications for their ice-crystal binding properties. These results are the first to demonstrate a dual liver/skin role of identical type I AFP expression which may represent an evolutionary intermediate prior to divergence into distinct gene families.
Article: Molecular characterization and expression pattern of AFPIV during embryogenesis in gibel carp(Carassiu auratus gibelio).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As a new type of AFPs, AFPIV has been firstly identified in longhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus), and in recent years, its cDNA and amino acid sequence have been reported, and its pancreatic synthesis has been firstly reported in polar fish. However, its expression patterns during fish embryogenesis have not been elucidated yet. By differential screening, we cloned the CagAFPIV in gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, demonstrated its predominant expression during embryogenesis. RT-PCR detection revealed that CagAFPIV was first transcribed from blastula stage and kept a high level during embryogenesis and declined remarkably in hatched larva. In situ hybridization revealed that CagAFPIV transcripts were firstly distributed over the margin and marginal blastomere in blastula stage embryos, at the early-gastrula stage the positive signals distributed in the marginal cells and the internalization cells, and later restricted to the cells the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) from later gastrula stage to larva stage. Consistently, the CagAFPIV protein also kept a high level during embryogenesis, and the high protein level retained some days after the larva hatched. Our work, for the first time, revealed the dynamic expression and distribution of CagAFPIV during embryogenesis.Molecular Biology Reports 12/2008; 36(7):2011-8. · 2.93 Impact Factor