Article

A comparison of five pesticides adsorption and desorption processes in thirteen contrasting field soils.

George E. Brown, Jr. Salinity Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 450 West Big Springs Road, Riverside, CA 92507-4617, USA.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.14). 12/2005; 61(5):668-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.03.024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Batch adsorption and desorption experiments were performed using thirteen agricultural soil samples and five pesticides. Experimental data indicated a gradient in pesticide adsorption on soil: trifluralin > 2,4-D > isoproturon> atrazine > bentazone. Atrazine, isoproturon and trifluralin adsorption were correlated to soil organic matter content (r2 = 0.7, 0.82, 0.79 respectively). Conversely, bentazone adsorption was governed by soil pH (r2 = 0.68) while insignificant effect has been shown in the case of 2,4-D. Multiple linear regressions were used to combine relationships between the various soil parameters and the Freundlich adsorption coefficient (K(f)) of each pesticide. Then desorption was assessed since it may reflect some of the interactions involved between the pesticides and the soil components. Adsorbed molecules were released into aqueous solution in the following order: bentazone > atrazine> isoproturon> 2,4-D > trifluralin. The occurrence of hysteresis did not allow an accurate interpretation of the pesticide desorption data because of the possible interplay of several processes.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
238 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The many advantageous properties of biochar have led to the recent interest in the use of this carbonaceous material as a soil amendment. However, there are limited studies dealing with the effect of biochar on the behavior of pesticides applied to crops. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of various biochars on the sorption-desorption of the herbicides aminocyclopyrachlor (6-amino-5-chloro-2-cyclopropyl-4-pyrimidinacarboxylic acid) and bentazone (3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide) and the fungicide pyraclostrobin (methyl 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl) pyrazol-3-yloxymethil]-N-methoxycarbanilate) to a silt loam soil. Aminocyclopyrachlor and bentazone were almost completely sorbed by the soils amended with the biochars produced from wood pellets. However, lower sorption of the herbicides was observed in the soils amended with the biochar made from macadamia nut shells as compared to the unamended soil, which was attributed to the competition between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the biochar and the herbicides for sorption sites. Our results showed that pyraclostrobin is highly sorbed to soil, and the addition of biochars to soil did not further increase its sorption. Thus, addition of biochars to increase the retention of low mobility pesticides in soil appears to not be necessary. On the other hand, biochars with high surface areas and low DOC contents can increase the sorption of highly mobile pesticides in soil.
    Science of The Total Environment 10/2013; 470-471C:438-443. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal manure is applied to agricultural land in areas of high livestock production. In the present study, we evaluated ageing of atrazine in two topsoils with and without addition of manure and in one subsoil. Ageing was assessed as the bioavailability of atrazine to the atrazine mineralizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~10(8) cells g(-1) of the ADP strain was inoculated to the (14)C-atrazine exposed soil and (14)CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure. Contrarily, sorption experiments showed less sorption to Simmelkær treated with manure than the untreated soil indicating that sorption processes are not the only mechanisms of ageing. The other topsoil low in organic carbon content, Ringe, showed no significant difference in ageing between the manure-treated and untreated soil. The present study illustrates that not simply the organic carbon content influences adsorption and ageing of atrazine in soil but the origin and composition of organic matter plays an important role.
    Biodegradation 07/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The distribution coefficient (KD) for the human drug carbamazepine was measured using a non-equilibrium technique. Repacked soil columns were prepared using an Airport silt loam (Typic Natrustalf) with an average organic matter content of 2.45%. Carbamazepine solutions were then leached through the columns at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mLmin(-1) representing average linear velocities of 1.8, 3.5 and 5.3cmh(-1) respectively. Each flow rate was replicated three times and three carbamazepine pulses were applied to each column resulting in a total of 9 columns with 27 total carbamazepine pulses. Breakthrough curves were used to determine KD using the parameter fitting software CXTFIT. Results indicate that as flow rate decreased from 5.3 to 1.8cmh(-1), KD increased an average of 21%. Additionally, KD determined by column leaching (14.7-22.7Lkg(-1)) was greater than KD determined by a 2h batch equilibrium adsorption (12.6Lkg(-1)). Based on these KD's carbamazepine would be generally characterized as non-mobile in the soil investigated. However, repeated carbamazepine applications resulted in an average 22% decrease in KD between the first and third applications. Decreasing KD is attributed to differences in sorption site kinetics and carbamazepine residence time in contact with the soil. This would indicate that the repeated use of reclaimed wastewater at high application rates for long-term irrigation or groundwater recharge has the potential to lead to greater transport of carbamazepine than KD determined by batch equilibrium would predict.
    Chemosphere 09/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
13 Downloads
Available from