Introduction of a cis-prolyl mimic in position 7 of the peptide hormone oxytocin does not result in antagonistic activity.
ABSTRACT New insights into the structure-activity relationship of the peptide hormone oxytocin are presented. Incorporation of the novel cis-prolyl mimic 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (pseudoproline, PsiPro) at position 7 of the hormone yielded the analogue [Cys(Psi(Me,Me)pro)]7oxytocin (1) that showed a 92-95% induction of the cis peptide bond conformation between Cys6 and PsiPro7, as determined by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra in water and in DMSO-d6. The impact of the dimethyl moiety regarding conformation and bioactivity was investigated by the synthesis of the corresponding dihydro compound, [Cys(Psi(H,H)pro)]7oxytocin (2). Biological tests of the uterotonic activity, the pressor activity, and the binding affinity to the rat and human oxytocin receptors were carried out. As a most significant result, no antagonistic activities were found for both the cis-constrained analogue 1 and analogue 2, suggesting that a cis conformation between residues 6 and 7 of the molecule does not result in antagonistic activity. However, the about 10-fold reduction in agonistic activity of 1 as compared to oxytocin is consistent with the reduction of the trans conformation from 90% for oxytocin to 5-8% for compound 1. Compound 1 retained a high binding affinity for the oxytocin receptor, with K(i) values of 8.0 and 1.9 nM for the rat and the human receptor, respectively. The correlation between the biological activities and the cis contents obtained from NMR analysis for compounds 1, 2, and oxytocin leads to the hypothesis that a cis/trans conformational change plays an important role in oxytocin receptor binding and activation.
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ABSTRACT: Incorporation of L- or D-Tic into position 7 of oxytocin (OT) and its deamino analogue ([Mpa(1)]OT) resulted in four analogues, [L-Tic(7)]OT (1), [D-Tic(7)]OT (2), [Mpa(1),L-Tic(7)]OT (3) and [Mpa(1),D-Tic(7)]OT (4). Their biological properties were described by Fragiadaki et al. (Eur J Med Chem 42:799-806, 2007). Their NMR study (NOESY, TOCSY, (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra) is presented here. Analogues 1, 3 and 4 showed partial agonistic activity, analogue 2 was pure antagonist, suggesting that a cis conformation between residues 6 and 7 of the molecule does not result in antagonistic activity. However, the reduction in agonistic activity of analogues 1, 3 and 4 in comparison to oxytocin is consistent with the reduction of the trans conformation form. Binding affinity for the human oxytocin receptor with IC(50) value of 130, 730, 103, and 380 nM for peptides 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, showed lower affinity in the case of D analogues. Deamination slightly increased the affinity. The existence of both cis and trans configurations of the Cys(6)-D-Tic(7) bond is supported by observation of two sets of cross-peaks for (1)H and (13)C nuclei for most of the residues of the peptide not only in NOESY and TOCSY but also in (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra. The MS and HPLC indicate the presence of a single molecule/peptide, and NMR data thus suggest that this second set of peaks is due to the cis conformation.Amino Acids 07/2010; 39(2):539-48. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents the synthesis and solution conformational studies of the tripeptides Fmoc-Ala-(R)-(αMe)Ser(Ψ(H,H)Pro)-Ala-OBu(t) (6a) and Fmoc-Ala-(S)-(αMe)Ser(Ψ(H,H)Pro)-Ala-OBu(t) (6b). Additionally, the X-ray structure of 6a is given. NMR analysis corroborated by theoretical calculations (XPLOR) shows that in both peptides the amide bond between pseudoproline and the preceding amino acid is in the trans conformation. The same amide bond geometry was observed in the crystal state of 6a. The latter is additionally influenced by the presence of two symmetrically independent molecules in an asymmetric unit. Both molecules adopt a conformation which resembles β-turn type II, stabilized by hydrogen bonding. The conformational preferences and prolyl cis-trans isomerization of Ac-(αMe)Ser(Ψ(H,H)Pro)-NHMe (7) were explored at the IEFPCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory in vacuum, water and chloroform. It has been shown that the trans isomer predominates in water solutions and the cis isomer is preferred in chloroform. The conformation of 7 is down-puckered independently of the geometry of the amide bonds, with lower puckering in the transition state of the cis-trans isomerization.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 07/2012; 10(33):6705-16. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reaction of thioamino acids and N-terminal peptides, mediated by hindered isonitriles and hydroxybenzotriazole, gives rise to peptide bonds. In one pathway, oxytocin was synthesized by eight such reiterative amidations. In another stereospecific track, oxytocin was constructed by native chemical ligation, wherein the two building blocks were assembled by thioacid amine amidation. The NMR spectra of oxytocin and dihydrooxytocin suggest a high level of preorganization in the latter, perhaps favoring oxidative folding.Journal of the American Chemical Society 07/2012; 134(32):13244-7. · 10.68 Impact Factor