Thailand is a canine rabies endemic country with an annual prevalence above 1,000 reported animals diagnosed rabid . Over 345,000 humans are treated for possible rabies exposures annually . Lack of perception of the disease burden, social, cultural and traditional beliefs play an important role in the failure of canine rabies control. It is unfortunate that health care budgets are increasingly allocated to human post-exposure treatment rather than to the eradication of rabies in the canine animal vector. Children under the age of 15 years represent up to one-half of dog bite victims and of human rabies deaths, but accurate data of dog bite prevalence are not available . Large scale pre-exposure immunization of children has been advocated but financial and logistic barriers have hindered implementation. This study analyzes direct medical costs of pre-exposure vaccination (PREP) as a human rabies preventive strategy, against the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in Thai children. Three pre- and post-exposure vaccine regimens are in use and this impacts on cost calculations. It was found that costs of both strategies, PREP of children or PEP of exposed, become equal when the dog bite incidence is 2-30%; depending on which post-exposure treatment regimens (PEP) are used.
"Although the actual dog bite rate is not known for Thailand, about 30% of children have been bitten by a dog by age 15, suggesting an annual incidence rate of $ 2.3 bites per 100,000. The authors concluded that preventative childhood vaccination was not cost-effective for Thai children (Chulasugandha et al., 2006). One may assume that this type of cost analyses based on available vaccines would be similar for other countries with a high incidence of rabies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials.
Virology 02/2014; s 450–451:243–249. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2013.12.029 · 3.32 Impact Factor
"Therefore, generalized vaccination against rabies in high at-risk population using modern cell culture vaccines deserves more serious consideration. Cell culture-derived rabies vaccines have been proven to be safe and efficacious in various human subjects, including pregnant women   , infants, toddlers, and school children  . Cell culturederived rabies vaccines produced in suitable substrates (such as Vero or chicken embryo fibroblast cells) have comparable safety criteria . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While current rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is highly effective, it is costly and the vaccination regimen is complicated, requiring both inactivated vaccines and immunoglobulins. A one-dose rabies vaccine for human PEP remains a long-term goal. Here, we describe development of a highly attenuated rabies virus ERAg3m, with a mutation in the glycoprotein (G) gene and a switch of the G gene with the matrix protein gene in the viral genome. After a one-dose intramuscular vaccination, the ERAg3m virus protected 100% of mice and hamsters from lethal challenge. In co-infections, using a lethal dose of street rabies virus mixed with ERAg3m, 100% of hamsters and 90% of mice survived and were protected against subsequent infection. A mock co-infection, using inactivated commercial human rabies vaccine and a lethal dose of street rabies virus, protected 100% and 40% of hamsters and mice, respectively. In co-infections, when vaccine was administrated in the left leg and challenge virus in the right leg, the ERAg3m virus protected 40% of mice, while the inactivated vaccine showed no protection. Therefore, live attenuated rabies virus when given pre-exposure or co-infected with street rabies virus, is capable of preventing rabies in two different animal models. Overall, this highly attenuated live rabies virus offered better protection than the inactivated vaccine.
"Rabies has the dubious distinction of having the highest case fatality rate of all known infectious diseases. Rabies can be prevented by administration of potent and efficacious rabies vaccines both in pre and post exposure cases (16). It is evident that pre and post exposure use of cell culture rabies vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence in certain countries (7). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies is a fatal neurological disease and a persistent global problem. It is spread primarily by domestic dogs but other canid, viverrid (skunks and raccoons) and chiropteran species are considered as the most efficient vectors of the disease. Since dogs are the main perpetuator of rabies, special attention has to be given to bring all the dogs including unauthorized stray dogs under immunization umbrella in order to control rabies. Vaccination is the only way to combat the disease before and after exposure or infection as there is no treatment available once the symptoms have appeared. After the first crude nerve tissue vaccine developed by Pasteur in 1885, a number of rabies vaccines for animal and human use have been developed with varying degree of safety and efficacy over the years. Presently, cell culture based inactivated rabies vaccines are largely used in most of the parts of the world. However, these vaccines are too expensive and unaffordable for vaccination of people and animals in developing countries. The comparatively cheaper inactivated nerve tissues vaccines can cause serious side-effects such as autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inoculated animals and production has been discontinued in several countries. Although attenuated live vaccines can efficiently elicit a protective immune response with a smaller amount of virus, they sometimes can cause rabies in the inoculated animals by its residual virulence or pathogenic mutation during viral propagation in the body. New-generation rabies vaccines generated by gene manipulation although in experimental stage may be a suitable alternative to overcome the disadvantages of the live attenuated vaccines. So, awareness must be created in general public about the disease and the cell culture based vaccines available in the market should be recommended for wide scale use to prevent and control this emerging and reemerging infectious disease in foreseeable future.
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