Modeling the airway epithelium in allergic asthma: interleukin-13- induced effects in differentiated murine tracheal epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Mucous cells of the airway epithelium play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory airway diseases. Therefore, it is of importance to complement in vivo studies that use murine models of allergic asthma with in vitro mechanistic studies that use murine airway epithelial cells, including mucus-containing cells. In this study, we report the development and characterization of an in vitro culture system for primary murine tracheal epithelial (MTE) cells comprising ciliated cells and a substantial number of mucous cells. The increase in mucous cell number over that observed in the native murine airway, or in previously described murine cultures, creates a culture intermediate between the in vivo murine airway epithelium and in vitro cultures of human airway epithelial cells. To establish the usefulness of this culture system for the study of epithelial effects during inflammatory airway diseases, the cells were exposed to interleukin (IL)-13, a central inflammatory mediator in allergic asthma. The IL-13 induced two characteristic epithelial effects, proliferation and modulation of MUC5AC gene expression. There was a concentration dependence of these events, wherein high concentrations of IL-13 (10 ng/ml) induced proliferation, whereas lower concentrations (1 ng/ml) increased MUC5AC mRNA (where mRNA is messenger RNA). Interestingly, these effects occurred in an inverse manner, with the high concentration of IL-13 also provoking a significant decrease in MUC5AC gene expression. Thus, MTE cells cultured in this manner may provide an important link between experimental findings from animal models of allergic asthma and their application to human disease.
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ABSTRACT: Air-liquid interface models using murine tracheal respiratory epithelium have revolutionized the in vitro study of pulmonary diseases. This model is often impractical because of the small number of respiratory epithelial cells that can be isolated from the mouse trachea. We describe a simple technique to harvest the murine nasal septum and grow the epithelial cells in an air-liquid interface. The degree of ciliation of mouse trachea, nasal septum, and their respective cultured epithelium at an air-liquid interface were compared by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Immunocytochemistry for type IV beta-tubulin and zona occludens-1 (Zo-1) are performed to determine differentiation and confluence, respectively. To rule out contamination with olfactory epithelium (OE), immunocytochemistry for olfactory marker protein (OMP) was performed. Transepithelial resistance and potential measurements were determined using a modified vertical Ussing chamber SEM reveals approximately 90% ciliated respiratory epithelium in the nasal septum as compared with 35% in the mouse trachea. The septal air-liquid interface culture demonstrates comparable ciliated respiratory epithelium to the nasal septum. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates an intact monolayer and diffuse differentiated ciliated epithelium. These cultures exhibit a transepithelial resistance and potential confirming a confluent monolayer with electrically active airway epitheliumn containing both a sodium-absorptive pathway and a chloride-secretory pathway. To increase the yield of respiratory epithelial cells harvested from mice, we have found the nasal septum is a superior source when compared with the trachea. The nasal septum increases the yield of respiratory epithelial cells up to 8-fold.BioTechniques 09/2007; 43(2):195-6, 198, 200 passim. · 2.67 Impact Factor
Article: IL-13 dampens human airway epithelial innate immunity through induction of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase M.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Impaired airway mucosal immunity can contribute to increased respiratory tract infections in asthmatic patients, but the involved molecular mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Airway epithelial cells serve as the first line of respiratory mucosal defense to eliminate inhaled pathogens through various mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways. Our previous studies suggest that impaired TLR2 function in T(H)2 cytokine-exposed airways might decrease immune responses to pathogens and subsequently exacerbate allergic inflammation. IL-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) negatively regulates TLR signaling. However, IRAK-M expression in airway epithelium from asthmatic patients and its functions under a T(H)2 cytokine milieu remain unclear. We sought to evaluate the role of IRAK-M in IL-13-inhibited TLR2 signaling in human airway epithelial cells. We examined IRAK-M protein expression in epithelia from asthmatic patients versus that in normal airway epithelia. Moreover, IRAK-M regulation and function in modulating innate immunity (eg, TLR2 signaling) were investigated in cultured human airway epithelial cells with or without IL-13 stimulation. IRAK-M protein levels were increased in asthmatic airway epithelium. Furthermore, in primary human airway epithelial cells, IL-13 consistently upregulated IRAK-M expression, largely through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Specifically, phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation led to c-Jun binding to human IRAK-M gene promoter and IRAK-M upregulation. Functionally, IL-13-induced IRAK-M suppressed airway epithelial TLR2 signaling activation (eg, TLR2 and human β-defensin 2), partly through inhibiting activation of nuclear factor κB. Our data indicate that epithelial IRAK-M overexpression in T(H)2 cytokine-exposed airways inhibits TLR2 signaling, providing a novel mechanism for the increased susceptibility of infections in asthmatic patients.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2011; 129(3):825-833.e2. · 9.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Innate immune responses form the first line of defense against foreign insults and recently significant advances have been made in our understanding of the initiation of innate immune response along with its ability to modulate inflammation. In airway diseases such as asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis, over reacting of the airway innate immune responses leads to cytokine imbalance and airway remodeling or damage. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors have the potential to deliver genes to modulate airway innate immune responses and have many advantages over its predecessors. However, there still are a few limitations that need to be addressed prior to their use in clinical applications.Cellular & molecular immunology 05/2007; 4(2):81-9. · 2.99 Impact Factor