Article

The fate of Lyngbya majuscula toxins in three potential consumers.

Smithsonian Marine Station, Fort Pierce, FL 34949, USA.
Journal of Chemical Ecology (Impact Factor: 2.46). 08/2005; 31(7):1595-606. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-005-5800-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Blooms of Lyngbya majuscula have been reported with increasing frequency and severity in the last decade in Moreton Bay, Australia. A number of grazers have been observed feeding upon this toxic cyanobacterium. Differences in sequestration of toxic compounds from L. majuscula were investigated in two anaspideans, Stylocheilus striatus, Bursatella leachii, and the cephalaspidean Diniatys dentifer. Species fed a monospecific diet of L. majuscula had different toxin distribution in their tissues and excretions. A high concentration of lyngbyatoxin-a was observed in the body of S. striatus (3.94 mg/kg(-1)) compared to bodily secretions (ink 0.12 mg/kg(-1); fecal matter 0.56 mg/kg(-1); eggs 0.05 mg/kg(-1)). In contrast, B. leachii secreted greater concentrations of lyngbyatoxin-a (ink 5.41 mg/kg(-1); fecal matter 6.71 mg/kg(-1)) than that stored in the body (2.24 mg/kg(-1)). The major internal repository of lyngbyatoxin-a and debromoaplysiatoxin was the digestive gland for both S. striatus (6.31 +/- 0.31 mg/kg(-1)) and B. leachii (156.39 +/- 46.92 mg/kg(-1)). D. dentifer showed high variability in the distribution of sequestered compounds. Lyngbyatoxin-a was detected in the digestive gland (3.56 +/- 3.56 mg/kg(-1)) but not in the head and foot, while debromoaplysiatoxin was detected in the head and foot (133.73 +/- 129.82 mg/kg(-1)) but not in the digestive gland. The concentrations of sequestered secondary metabolites in these animals did not correspond to the concentrations found in L. majuscula used as food for these experiments, suggesting it may have been from previous dietary exposure. Trophic transfer of debromoaplysiatoxin from L. majuscula into S. striatus is well established; however, a lack of knowledge exists for other grazers. The high levels of secondary metabolites observed in both the anaspidean and the cephalapsidean species suggest that these toxins may bioaccumulate through marine food chains.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
83 Views
  • Marine and Freshwater Research 01/2007; 58(10). · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lyngbya wollei is a benthic filamentous cyanobacterium that produces a toxin analogous to the neurotoxic saxitoxin known as lyngbyatoxin (LYNGTX). Microcystis aeruginosa form blooms in the pelagic area of eutrophic lakes and produce a series of potent hepatotoxins-microcystins (MCYST). The aim of this study in vitro study was to examine the difference between the crude extracts of either M. aeruginosa or L. wollei toward the immune system of Elliptio complanata mussels. Freshly isolated hemolymph was plated and exposed to the crude extract of each species at LYNGTX or MCYST equivalent concentrations of 5, 10 and 25 μg/L for 18 h. Immunocompetence was characterized by following changes in hemocyte numbers, metabolic activity (viability), and phagocytosis. Hemocyte counts were not affected, indicating no turnover of hemocytes. Hemocyte metabolic activity was higher in cells exposed to crude extracts of L. wollei. Exposure to L. wollei extracts led to decreased pro-inflammatory precursors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activities. Phagocytosis increased at 25 μg/L for both types of crude extracts. However, hemocytes exposed to crude extracts of M. aeruginosa produced more ROS and COX compared to hemocytes exposed to crude extracts of L. wollei. In conclusion, the data suggest that the crude extract of M. aeruginosa was more toxic than crude extract of L. wollei to mussel hemocytes.
    Ecotoxicology 01/2014; · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blooms of the toxic cyanobacteria Lyngbya spp. have been increasing in frequency and severity in southeast Florida in recent years. Lyngbya produces many active secondary metabolites which often act as feeding deterrents to generalist herbivores, possibly increasing the longevity of these nuisance blooms. Whilst diverse arrays of small invertebrate consumers are often found in association with Lyngbya, little is known of their grazing selectivity among species of Lyngbya. This study examines the feeding preference of grazers for four local Lyngbya species (Lyngbya majuscula, Lyngbya confervoides, Lyngbya polychroa and Lyngbya spp.). Stylocheilus striatus and Haminoea antillarum showed no dietary selectivity between L. polychroa, L. majuscula and Lyngbya spp. in multiple choice feeding assays, whereas Bulla striata showed a distinct preference for L. polychroa (P
    Harmful Algae 01/2008; 7(6):717-728. · 2.90 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
53 Downloads
Available from
Jun 6, 2014