[Imaging of rhinocerebral mucormycosis].
ABSTRACT Rhinocerebal mucormycosis is a rare life threatening fungal infection observed in immunocompromised patients. We report six cases of patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis confirmed histologically. Our study confirms the necessity of early diagnosis when clinical and CT findings are suggestive.
This is a retrospective study including 6 diabetic patients (3 women and 3 men) aged from 28 and 63 years. Five patients had ethmoiditis evolving for a few days (3 to 5 days), and one patient was in an ketoacidotic coma and had a severe infectious syndrome with purulent rhinorrhea evolving for 4 days. All of our patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses. MRI was performed in two patients with neurological findings.
Unilateral ethmoido-maxillary sinusitis was noted in 5 cases. Only one case of pansinusitis was found. All patients presented orbital involvement. Cerebral involvement was noted in 4 cases (cerebral venous thrombosis: 2 cases; abscess: 2 cases; cerebral ischemia: 2 cases). The diagnosis of mucormycosis was based on endonasal biopsy. When available, MRI allowed a more precise evaluation of the orbital and cerebral extension.
Mucormycosis is an opportunist mycosis due to mucoralis fungus. It is very invasive with a highly aggressive potential in diabetic or immunocompromised patients. Imaging study particularly CT scan, plays an important role in diagnosis especially to evaluate cerebral extension.
Article: Orbitomaxillary mucormycosis (zygomycosis) and the surgical approach to treatment: perspectives from a maxillofacial surgeon.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rhinocerebral or rhino-orbitocerebral (mucormycosis) zygomycosis (ROCZ) usually occurs among patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (especially those with ketoacidosis), solid malignancies, iron overload or extensive burns, in patients undergoing treatment with glucocorticosteroid agents, or in patients with neutropenia related to haematologic malignancies. The disease process starts with inhalation of the fungus into the paranasal sinuses. The fungus may spread to invade the palate, sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus, orbits or cranially to invade the brain. Pain and swelling precede oral ulceration and the resulting tissue necrosis can result in palatal perforation. Infection can sometimes extend from the sinuses into the mouth and produce painful, necrotic ulcerations of the hard palate. If untreated, infection usually spreads from the ethmoid sinus to the orbit, resulting in the loss of extraocular muscle function and proptosis. Surgical treatment includes the resection of involved tissues of the face, including skin and muscle, any skin of the nose that is involved, maxillary and ethmoid sinuses, necrotic tissue of the temporal area and infratemporal fossa, and orbital exenteration. The keys to successful therapy include suspicion of the diagnosis and early recognition of the signs and symptoms, correction of underlying medical disorders such as ketoacidosis, and aggressive medical and surgical intervention.Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10/2009; 15 Suppl 5:98-102. · 4.54 Impact Factor
Article: Successful treatment of a giant isolated cerebral mucormycotic (zygomycotic) abscess using endoscopic debridement: case report and therapeutic considerations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cerebral mucormycosis without rhino-orbital or systemic involvement is an extremely rare condition mostly associated with parenteral drug abuse. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with hemiparesis of the left side and altered mental status. Neuroradiologic workup demonstrated an inflammatory lesion involving the right basal ganglia. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated features consistent with a pyogenic abscess. Computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy led to the diagnosis of cerebral mucormycosis. Parenteral AMB-L treatment was conducted, but the patient worsened clinically, presenting with a complete hemiplegia, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans demonstrated a voluminous abscess formation. Then, under stereotactic guidance, a surgical endoscopic debridement of the abscess cavity associated with the placement of an Ommaya reservoir was performed. Systemic and intralesional treatment with AmB associated with an adjunctive immune therapy was conducted. At 3-year follow-up, the patient had recovered partially from her left hemiplegia, allowing her to walk without help, and cerebral MRI scans showed complete resorption of the abscess. Our good results suggest that surgical endoscopic debridement associated with intravenous and intracavitary antifungal therapy might be valuable in treating voluminous deep-seated mucormycotic lesions.Surgical Neurology 06/2008; 69(5):510-5; discussion 515. · 1.67 Impact Factor